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Sökning: WFRF:(Murray Sarah S)

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  • Föregående 12345[6]7Nästa
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51.
  • Bethke, Lara, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive analysis of the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on risk of glioma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 17:6, s. 800-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Much of the variation in inherited risk of glioma is likely to be explained by combinations of common low risk variants. The established relationship between glioma risk and exposure to ionizing radiation led us to examine whether variants in the DNA repair genes contribute to disease susceptibility. We evaluated 1127 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) supplemented with 388 putative functional SNPs to capture most of the common variation in 136 DNA repair genes, in five unique case–control series from four different countries (1013 cases, 1016 controls). We identified 16 SNPs associated with glioma risk at the 1% significance level. The highest association observed across the five independent case–control datasets involved rs243356, which maps to intron 3 of CHAF1A (trend odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval 1.14–1.54; P = 0.0002; false-positive report probability = 0.055, based on a prior probability of 0.01). Our results provide additional support for the hypothesis that low penetrance variants contribute to the risk of developing glioma and suggest that a genetic variant located in or around the CHAF1A gene contributes to disease risk.
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52.
  • Bethke, Lara, et al. (författare)
  • Functional polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes influence the risk of meningioma and glioma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 17:5, s. 1195-1202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Folate metabolism plays an important role in carcinogenesis. To test the hypothesis that polymorphic variation in the folate metabolism genes 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTRR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) influences the risk of primary brain tumors, we genotyped 1,005 glioma cases, 631 meningioma cases, and 1,101 controls for the MTHFR C677A and A1298C, MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G variants. MTHFR C677T-A1298C diplotypes were associated with risk of meningioma (P = 0.002) and glioma (P = 0.02); risks were increased with genotypes associated with reduced MTHFR activity. The highest risk of meningioma was associated with heterozygosity for both MTHFR variants [odds ratio (OR), 2.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.42-3.12]. The corresponding OR for glioma was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.91-1.66). A significant association between risk of meningioma and homozygosity for MTRR 66G was also observed (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.02-1.94). Our findings provide support for the role of folate metabolism in the development of primary brain tumors. In particular, genotypes associated with increased 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate levels are associated with elevated risk.
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53.
  • Bethke, Lara, et al. (författare)
  • The Common D302H Variant of CASP8 Is Associated with Risk of Glioma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 17:4, s. 987-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caspase 8 (CASP8) is a key regulator of apoptosis or programmed cell death, and, hence, a defense against cancer. We tested the hypothesis that the CASP8 polymorphism D302H influences risk of glioma through analysis of five series of glioma case patients and controls (n = 1,005 and 1,011, respectively). Carrier status for the rare allele of D302H was associated with a 1.37-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.70; P = 0.004). The association of CASP8 D302H with glioma risk indicates the importance of inherited variation in the apoptosis pathway in susceptibility to this form of primary brain tumor.
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54.
  • Coviello, Andrea D., et al. (författare)
  • A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8x10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p=1.4x10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p=2.2x10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p=3.4x10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p=6.1x10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p=1.9x10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p=8.3x10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p=3.5x10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p=4.1x10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p=1.3x10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p=2.7x10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p=5.5x10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5x10(-08), women p=0.66, heterogeneity p=0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained similar to 15.6% and similar to 8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance.
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55.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome measures in coeliac disease trials : the Tampere recommendations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 67:8, s. 1410-1424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: A gluten-free diet is the only treatment option of coeliac disease, but recently an increasing number of trials have begun to explore alternative treatment strategies. We aimed to review the literature on coeliac disease therapeutic trials and issue recommendations for outcome measures.Design: Based on a literature review of 10 062 references, we (17 researchers and 2 patient representatives from 10 countries) reviewed the use and suitability of both clinical and non-clinical outcome measures. We then made expert-based recommendations for use of these outcomes in coeliac disease trials and identified areas where research is needed. Results: We comment on the use of histology, serology, clinical outcome assessment (including patient-reported outcomes), quality of life and immunological tools including gluten immunogenic peptides for trials in coeliac disease.Conclusion: Careful evaluation and reporting of outcome measures will increase transparency and comparability of coeliac disease therapeutic trials, and will benefit patients, healthcare and the pharmaceutical industry.
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56.
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57.
  • DeMott, Paul J., et al. (författare)
  • The Fifth International Workshop on Ice Nucleation phase 2 (FIN-02) : Laboratory intercomparison of ice nucleation measurements
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1867-1381. ; 11:11, s. 6231-6257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The second phase of the Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop (FIN-02) involved the gathering of a large number of researchers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology's Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) facility to promote characterization and understanding of ice nucleation measurements made by a variety of methods used worldwide. Compared to the previous workshop in 2007, participation was doubled, reflecting a vibrant research area. Experimental methods involved sampling of aerosol particles by direct processing ice nucleation measuring systems from the same volume of air in separate experiments using different ice nucleating particle (INP) types, and collections of aerosol particle samples onto filters or into liquid for sharing amongst measurement techniques that post-process these samples. In this manner, any errors introduced by differences in generation methods when samples are shared across laboratories were mitigated. Furthermore, as much as possible, aerosol particle size distribution was controlled so that the size limitations of different methods were minimized. The results presented here use data from the workshop to assess the comparability of immersion freezing measurement methods activating INPs in bulk suspensions, methods that activate INPs in condensation and/or immersion freezing modes as single particles on a substrate, continuous flow diffusion chambers (CFDCs) directly sampling and processing particles well above water saturation to maximize immersion and subsequent freezing of aerosol particles, and expansion cloud chamber simulations in which liquid cloud droplets were first activated on aerosol particles prior to freezing. The AIDA expansion chamber measurements are expected to be the closest representation to INP activation in atmospheric cloud parcels in these comparisons, due to exposing particles freely to adiabatic cooling. The different particle types used as INPs included the minerals illite NX and potassium feldspar (K-feldspar), two natural soil dusts representative of arable sandy loam (Argentina) and highly erodible sandy dryland (Tunisia) soils, respectively, and a bacterial INP (Snomax®). Considered together, the agreement among post-processed immersion freezing measurements of the numbers and fractions of particles active at different temperatures following bulk collection of particles into liquid was excellent, with possible temperature uncertainties inferred to be a key factor in determining INP uncertainties. Collection onto filters for rinsing versus directly into liquid in impingers made little difference. For methods that activated collected single particles on a substrate at a controlled humidity at or above water saturation, agreement with immersion freezing methods was good in most cases, but was biased low in a few others for reasons that have not been resolved, but could relate to water vapor competition effects. Amongst CFDC-style instruments, various factors requiring (variable) higher supersaturations to achieve equivalent immersion freezing activation dominate the uncertainty between these measurements, and for comparison with bulk immersion freezing methods. When operated above water saturation to include assessment of immersion freezing, CFDC measurements often measured at or above the upper bound of immersion freezing device measurements, but often underestimated INP concentration in comparison to an immersion freezing method that first activates all particles into liquid droplets prior to cooling (the PIMCA-PINC device, or Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber-Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber), and typically slightly underestimated INP number concentrations in comparison to cloud parcel expansions in the AIDA chamber; this can be largely mitigated when it is possible to raise the relative humidity to sufficiently high values in the CFDCs, although this is not always possible operationally. Correspondence of measurements of INPs among direct sampling and post-processing systems varied depending on the INP type. Agreement was best for Snomax® particles in the temperature regime colder than -10°C, where their ice nucleation activity is nearly maximized and changes very little with temperature. At temperatures warmer than -10°C, Snomax® INP measurements (all via freezing of suspensions) demonstrated discrepancies consistent with previous reports of the instability of its protein aggregates that appear to make it less suitable as a calibration INP at these temperatures. For Argentinian soil dust particles, there was excellent agreement across all measurement methods; measures ranged within 1 order of magnitude for INP number concentrations, active fractions and calculated active site densities over a 25 to 30°C range and 5 to 8 orders of corresponding magnitude change in number concentrations. This was also the case for all temperatures warmer than -25°C in Tunisian dust experiments. In contrast, discrepancies in measurements of INP concentrations or active site densities that exceeded 2 orders of magnitude across a broad range of temperature measurements found at temperatures warmer than -25°C in a previous study were replicated for illite NX. Discrepancies also exceeded 2 orders of magnitude at temperatures of -20 to -25°C for potassium feldspar (K-feldspar), but these coincided with the range of temperatures at which INP concentrations increase rapidly at approximately an order of magnitude per 2°C cooling for K-feldspar. These few discrepancies did not outweigh the overall positive outcomes of the workshop activity, nor the future utility of this data set or future similar efforts for resolving remaining measurement issues. Measurements of the same materials were repeatable over the time of the workshop and demonstrated strong consistency with prior studies, as reflected by agreement of data broadly with parameterizations of different specific or general (e.g., soil dust) aerosol types. The divergent measurements of the INP activity of illite NX by direct versus post-processing methods were not repeated for other particle types, and the Snomax° data demonstrated that, at least for a biological INP type, there is no expected measurement bias between bulk collection and direct immediately processed freezing methods to as warm as -10°C. Since particle size ranges were limited for this workshop, it can be expected that for atmospheric populations of INPs, measurement discrepancies will appear due to the different capabilities of methods for sampling the full aerosol size distribution, or due to limitations on achieving sufficient water supersaturations to fully capture immersion freezing in direct processing instruments. Overall, this workshop presents an improved picture of present capabilities for measuring INPs than in past workshops, and provides direction toward addressing remaining measurement issues.
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58.
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59.
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60.
  • Murray, Sarah S, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of the capsid protein glycosylation of adeno-associated virus type 2 by high-resolution mass spectrometry
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 0022-538X. ; 80:12, s. 6-6171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) capsid proteins have eight sequence motifs that are potential sites for O- or N-linked glycosylation. Three are in prominent surface locations, close to the sites of cellular receptor attachment and to neutralizing epitopes on or near protrusions surrounding the three-fold axes, raising the possibility that AAV-2 might use glycosylation as a means of immune escape or for preventing reattachment on release of progeny virus. Peptide mapping and structural analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry demonstrates, however, no glycosylation of the capsid protein for virus prepared in cultured HeLa cells.
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  • Föregående 12345[6]7Nästa
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