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Sökning: WFRF:(Muzny Donna M.)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 20
  • Föregående 1[2]
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11.
  • Margulies, Elliott H, et al. (författare)
  • Analyses of deep mammalian sequence alignments and constraint predictions for 1% of the human genome
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 17:6, s. 760-774
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A key component of the ongoing ENCODE project involves rigorous comparative sequence analyses for the initially targeted 1% of the human genome. Here, we present orthologous sequence generation, alignment, and evolutionary constraint analyses of 23 mammalian species for all ENCODE targets. Alignments were generated using four different methods; comparisons of these methods reveal large-scale consistency but substantial differences in terms of small genomic rearrangements, sensitivity (sequence coverage), and specificity (alignment accuracy). We describe the quantitative and qualitative trade-offs concomitant with alignment method choice and the levels of technical error that need to be accounted for in applications that require multisequence alignments. Using the generated alignments, we identified constrained regions using three different methods. While the different constraint-detecting methods are in general agreement, there are important discrepancies relating to both the underlying alignments and the specific algorithms. However, by integrating the results across the alignments and constraint-detecting methods, we produced constraint annotations that were found to be robust based on multiple independent measures. Analyses of these annotations illustrate that most classes of experimentally annotated functional elements are enriched for constrained sequences; however, large portions of each class (with the exception of protein-coding sequences) do not overlap constrained regions. The latter elements might not be under primary sequence constraint, might not be constrained across all mammals, or might have expendable molecular functions. Conversely, 40% of the constrained sequences do not overlap any of the functional elements that have been experimentally identified. Together, these findings demonstrate and quantify how many genomic functional elements await basic molecular characterization.
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12.
  • Zhao, Chaoyang, et al. (författare)
  • A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0445. ; 25:5, s. 613-620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation.
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13.
  • Bainbridge, Matthew N, et al. (författare)
  • Germline mutations in shelterin complex genes are associated with familial glioma
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gliomas are the most common brain tumor, with several histological subtypes of various malignancy grade. The genetic contribution to familial glioma is not well understood. Using whole exome sequencing of 90 individuals from 55 families, we identified two families with mutations in POT1 (p.G95C, p.E450X), a member of the telomere shelterin complex, shared by both affected individuals in each family and predicted to impact DNA binding and TPP1 binding, respectively. Validation in a separate cohort of 264 individuals from 246 families identified an additional mutation in POT1 (p.D617Efs), also predicted to disrupt TPP1 binding. All families with POT1 mutations had affected members with oligodendroglioma, a specific subtype of glioma more sensitive to irradiation. These findings are important for understanding the origin of glioma and could have importance for the future diagnostics and treatment of glioma.
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14.
  • Timms, Kirsten M, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular and phenotypic variation in patients with severe Hunter syndrome
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 6:3, s. 479-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe Hunter syndrome is a fatal X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by iduronate-2-sulphatase (IDS) deficiency. Patients with complete deletion of the IDS locus often have atypical phenotypes including ptosis, obstructive sleep apnoea, and the occurrence of seizures. We have used genomic DNA sequencing to identify several new genes in the IDS region. DNA deletion patients with atypical symptoms have been analysed to determine whether these atypical symptoms could be due to involvement of these other loci. The occurrence of seizures in two individuals correlated with a deletion extending proximal of IDS, up to and including part of the FMR2 locus. Other (non-seizure) symptoms were associated with distal deletions. In addition, a group of patients with no variant symptoms, and a characteristic rearrangement involving a recombination between the IDS gene and an adjacent IDS pseudogene (IDS psi), showed normal expression of loci distal to IDS. Together, these results identify FMR2 as a candidate gene for seizures, when mutated along with IDS.
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15.
  • Ding, Li, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 455:7216, s. 1069-1075
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers--including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM--and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment.
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16.
  • Foote, Andrew D., et al. (författare)
  • Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:3, s. 272-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.
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17.
  • Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 478:7370, s. 476-482
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering similar to 4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for similar to 60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate-and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.
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18.
  • Jacobs, Daniel I., et al. (författare)
  • Elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of familial glioma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 78:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In recent years, the molecular characterization of sporadically arising diffuse gliomas has identified recurrent driving alterations and delineated molecularly and clinically distinct subclasses of disease. However, less is known about the molecular nature of gliomas that are familial in origin. To address this question, we integrated germline and somatic genomic data to characterize the molecular pathogenesis of 20 tumors arising in unrelated individuals with a family history of glioma collected through the Gliogene International Consortium. METHODS: FFPE tumor specimens were sectioned and reviewed to localize neoplastic tissue for DNA extraction. Library preparation, exome plus targeted capture, and paired-end sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed at the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center. Single-nucleotide variants and indels were called with respect to germline DNA sequencing data for each case using MuTect2. Copy number profiling was performed on the Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip and analyzed using GenomeStudio v2.0. Genotypes at known glioma risk polymorphisms were determined from germline DNA profiled on the Illumina Infinium OncoArray and rare, predicted deleterious germline mutations were identified from germline whole-exome sequencing data. RESULTS: Tumor exome sequencing was completed at an average read depth of 116X and we detected a median of 54 non-silent somatic mutations per tumor across the 20 tumors profiled. All three molecular subtypes of sporadic glioma were represented, including IDH-mutant, 1p/19q codeleted (n=3), IDH-mutant, 1p/19q intact (n=7), and IDH-wildtype tumors (n=10). Characteristic subtype-specific mutations and copy number alterations (e.g., TP53 and ATRX mutations among IDH-mutant, 1p/19q intact tumors) were observed, and the frequencies of recurrent alterations were comparable to sporadic glioma cases analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas. Notably, all 20 cases had alterations in genes regulating telomere length; 17 had acquired mutations in ATRX or the TERT promoter as typically seen in sporadic glioma, while three instead had germline mutations in telomere shelterin complex genes POT1 or TERF2. Frequencies of known common glioma risk alleles were similar to those among sporadic cases and correlations between risk alleles and specific somatic mutations were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates: 1) the complementarity of inherited and acquired alterations in driving gliomagenesis in some individuals with a familial predisposition to the disease; and 2) that the molecular characteristics of familial tumors profiled largely recapitulate what is known about sporadic glioma. In the majority of cases, the source of germline genetic susceptibility is not known but does not appear to be conferred by common risk polymorphisms.
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19.
  • Jalali, Ali, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted sequencing in chromosome 17q linkage region identifies familial glioma candidates in the Gliogene Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 5, s. 8278-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glioma is a rare, but highly fatal, cancer that accounts for the majority of malignant primary brain tumors. Inherited predisposition to glioma has been consistently observed within non-syndromic families. Our previous studies, which involved non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses, both yielded significant linkage peaks on chromosome 17q. Here, we use data from next generation and Sanger sequencing to identify familial glioma candidate genes and variants on chromosome 17q for further investigation. We applied a filtering schema to narrow the original list of 4830 annotated variants down to 21 very rare (<0.1% frequency), non-synonymous variants. Our findings implicate the MYO19 and KIF18B genes and rare variants in SPAG9 and RUNDC1 as candidates worthy of further investigation. Burden testing and functional studies are planned.
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20.
  • Schwager, Evelyn E., et al. (författare)
  • The house spider genome reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication during arachnid evolution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Biology. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1741-7007 .- 1741-7007. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplication of genes in some chelicerate lineages including two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in horseshoe crabs. To investigate this further, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.Results: We found pervasive duplication of both coding and non-coding genes in this spider, including two clusters of Hox genes. Analysis of synteny conservation across the P. tepidariorum genome suggests that there has been an ancient WGD in spiders. Comparison with the genomes of other chelicerates, including that of the newly sequenced bark scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus, suggests that this event occurred in the common ancestor of spiders and scorpions, and is probably independent of the WGDs in horseshoe crabs. Furthermore, characterization of the sequence and expression of the Hox paralogs in P. tepidariorum suggests that many have been subject to neo-functionalization and/or sub-functionalization since their duplication.Conclusions: Our results reveal that spiders and scorpions are likely the descendants of a polyploid ancestor that lived more than 450 MYA. Given the extensive morphological diversity and ecological adaptations found among these animals, rivaling those of vertebrates, our study of the ancient WGD event in Arachnopulmonata provides a new comparative platform to explore common and divergent evolutionary outcomes of polyploidization events across eukaryotes.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 20
  • Föregående 1[2]

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