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41.
  • Heikkinen, Tuomas, et al. (författare)
  • Variants on the promoter region of PTEN affect breast cancer progression and patient survival
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 13:6, s. R130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUTION:The PTEN gene, a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt oncogenic pathway, is mutated in various cancers and its expression has been associated with tumor progression in a dose-dependent fashion. We investigated the effect of germline variation in the promoter region of the PTEN gene on clinical characteristics and survival in breast cancer.METHODS:We screened the promoter region of the PTEN gene for germline variation in 330 familial breast cancer cases and further determined the genotypes of three detected PTEN promoter polymorphisms -903GA, -975GC, and -1026CA in a total of 2,412 breast cancer patients to evaluate the effects of the variants on tumor characteristics and disease outcome. We compared the gene expression profiles in breast cancers of 10 variant carriers and 10 matched non-carriers and performed further survival analyses based on the differentially expressed genes.RESULTS: All three promoter variants associated with worse prognosis. The Cox's regression hazard ratio for 10-year breast cancer specific survival in multivariate analysis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.17 to 3.46) P = 0.0119, and for 5-year breast cancer death or distant metastasis free survival 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11) P = 0.0381 for the variant carriers, indicating PTEN promoter variants as an independent prognostic factor. The breast tumors from the promoter variant carriers exhibited a similar gene expression signature of 160 differentially expressed genes compared to matched non-carrier tumors. The signature further stratified patients into two groups with different recurrence free survival in independent breast cancer gene expression data sets.CONCLUSIONS:Inherited variation in the PTEN promoter region affects the tumor progression and gene expression profile in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to establish PTEN promoter variants as clinical markers for prognosis in breast cancer.
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42.
  • Heinonen, Mira, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic role of HuR in hereditary breast cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 13:23, s. 6959-6963
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: HuR is an mRNA-binding protein that enhances the stability of certain transcripts and can regulate their translation. Elevated cytoplasmic expression of HuR protein has been linked to carcinogenesis and is associated with reduced survival in breast, ovarian, and gastric adenocarcinomas. Experimental Design: Here, we have explored the relevance of HuR in familial breast cancer. Tumor samples were collected from patients with identified BRCA1 (n = 51) or BRCA2 (n = 47) mutations or familial non-BRCA1/2 cases (n = 525), and analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Among familial non-BRCAI/2 breast cancer patients, cytoplasmic HuR protein expression was present in 39.4% of the cases and was associated with estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, p53 positivity, high tumor grade, and ductal type of the tumor. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic HuR expression was an independent marker of reduced survival in the non-BRCAI/2 group along with tumor size >2 cm, lymph node metastasis, and high histologic grade. In patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, cytoplasmic HuR expression was more frequent (62.7% for BRCA1 and 61.7% for BRCA2) than in the non-BRCA1/ 2 group, but in BRCA -mutated subgroups cytoplasmic HuR expression did not associate with survival. Conclusions: Our results show that HuR is an important prognostic factor in familial breast cancer patients and may contribute to carcinogenesis in this disease.
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43.
  • Hollestelle, Antoinette, et al. (författare)
  • No clinical utility of KRAS variant rs61764370 for ovarian or breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - Academic Press. - 0090-8258. ; 141:2, s. 386-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3′ UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. Methods Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers). Results We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p = 0.74) or breast cancer (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p = 0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p = 0.14, breast cancer HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p = 0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p = 0.34, breast cancer HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p = 0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p = 0.38), breast cancer (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p = 0.38), and all other previously-reported associations. Conclusions rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers.
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44.
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45.
  • Jiang, Hai, et al. (författare)
  • The combined status of ATM and p53 link tumor development with therapeutic response
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genes & Development. - 0890-9369 .- 1549-5477. ; 23:16, s. 1895-1909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While the contribution of specific tumor suppressor networks to cancer development has been the subject of considerable recent study, it remains unclear how alterations in these networks are integrated to influence the response of tumors to anti-cancer treatments. Here, we show that mechanisms commonly used by tumors to bypass early neoplastic checkpoints ultimately determine chemotherapeutic response and generate tumor-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited with targeted therapies. Specifically, evaluation of the combined status of ATM and p53, two commonly mutated tumor suppressor genes, can help to predict the clinical response to genotoxic chemotherapies. We show that in p53-deficient settings, suppression of ATM dramatically sensitizes tumors to DNA-damaging chemotherapy, whereas, conversely, in the presence of functional p53, suppression of ATM or its downstream target Chk2 actually protects tumors from being killed by genotoxic agents. Furthermore, ATM-deficient cancer cells display strong nononcogene addiction to DNA-PKcs for survival after DNA damage, such that suppression of DNA-PKcs in vivo resensitizes inherently chemoresistant ATM-deficient tumors to genotoxic chemotherapy. Thus, the specific set of alterations induced during tumor development plays a dominant role in determining both the tumor response to conventional chemotherapy and specific susceptibilities to targeted therapies in a given malignancy.
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46.
  • Jiang, Xia, et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10−8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10−5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10−6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10−4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis. © 2019, The Author(s).
47.
  • Jiao, Xiang, et al. (författare)
  • PHIP - a novel candidate breast cancer susceptibility locus on 6q14.1
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: OncoTarget. - IMPACT JOURNALS LLC. - 1949-2553 .- 1949-2553. ; 8:61, s. 102769-102782
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families have no identified genetic cause. We used linkage and haplotype analyses in familial and sporadic breast cancer cases to identify a susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. Two independent genome-wide linkage analysis studies suggested a 3 Mb locus on chromosome 6q and two unrelated Swedish families with a LOD > 2 together seemed to share a haplotype in 6q14.1. We hypothesized that this region harbored a rare high-risk founder allele contributing to breast cancer in these two families. Sequencing of DNA and RNA from the two families did not detect any pathogenic mutations. Finally, 29 SNPs in the region were analyzed in 44,214 cases and 43,532 controls from BCAC, and the original haplotypes in the two families were suggested as low-risk alleles for European and Swedish women specifically. There was also some support for one additional independent moderate-risk allele in Swedish familial samples. The results were consistent with our previous findings in familial breast cancer and supported a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q14.1 around the PHIP gene.
48.
  • Johannsdottir, Hrefna K., et al. (författare)
  • Chromosome 5 imbalance mapping in breast tumors from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and sporadic breast tumors
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 119:5, s. 1052-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis has shown that chromosome 5q deletions are the most frequent aberration in breast tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers. To map the location of putative 5q tumor suppressor gene(s), 26 microsatellite markers covering chromosome 5 were used in loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of breast tumors from BRCA1 (n = 42) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (n = 67), as well as in sporadic cases (n = 65). High, density array CGH was also used to map chromosome 5 imbalance in 10 BRCA1 tumors. A high LOH frequency was found in BRCA1 tumors (range 19-82%), as compared to BRCA2 and sporadic tumors (ranges 11-44% and 7-43%, respectively). In all, 11 distinct chromosome 5 regions with LOH were observed, the most frequent being 5q35.3 (82%), 5q14.2 (71%) and 5q33.1 (69%) in BRCA1 tumors; 5q35.3 (44%), 5q31.3 (43%) and 5q13.3 (43%) in BRCA2 tumors and 5q31.3 (43%) in sporadic tumors. Array CGH analysis confirmed the very high frequency of 5q deletions, including candidate tumor suppressor genes such as XRCC4, RAD50, RASA1, APC and PPP2R2B. In addition, 2 distinct homozygous deletions were identified, spanning regions of 0.7-1.5 Mbp on 5q12.1 and 5q12.3-q13.1, respectively. These regions include only a few genes, most notably BRCC3/DEPDC1B (pleckstrin/G protein interacting and RhoGAP domains) and PIK3R1 (PI3 kinase P85 regulatory subunit). Significant association (p <= 0.05) was found between LOH at certain 5q regions and factors of poor prognosis, including negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, high grade, large tumor size and high portion of cells in S-phase. In conclusion, our results confirm a very high prevalence of chromosome 5q alterations in BRCA1 tumors, pinpointing new regions and genes that should be further investigated. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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49.
  • Johansson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution genomic profiling of male breast cancer reveals differences hidden behind the similarities with female breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 129:3, s. 747-760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare and poorly characterized on the molecular level. Using high-resolution genomic data, we aimed to characterize MBC by genomic imbalances and to compare it with female breast cancer (FBC), and further to investigate whether the genomic profiles hold any prognostic information. Fifty-six fresh frozen MBC tumors were analyzed using high-resolution tiling BAC arrays. Significant regions in common between cases were assessed using Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) analysis. A publicly available genomic data set of 359 FBC tumors was used for reference purposes. The data revealed a broad pattern of aberrations, confirming that MBC is a heterogeneous tumor type. Genomic gains were more common in MBC than in FBC and often involved whole chromosome arms, while losses of genomic material were less frequent. The most common aberrations were similar between the genders, but high-level amplifications were more common in FBC. We identified two genomic subgroups among MBCs; male-complex and male-simple. The male-complex subgroup displayed striking similarities with the previously reported luminal-complex FBC subgroup, while the male-simple subgroup seems to represent a new subgroup of breast cancer occurring only in men. There are many similarities between FBC and MBC with respect to genomic imbalances, but there are also distinct differences as revealed by high-resolution genomic profiling. MBC can be divided into two comprehensive genomic subgroups, which may be of prognostic value. The male-simple subgroup appears notably different from any genomic subgroup so far defined in FBC.
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50.
  • Johnatty, Sharon, et al. (författare)
  • No evidence that GATA3 rs570613 SNP modifies breast cancer risk
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 0167-6806. ; 117:2, s. 371-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a transcription factor that is crucial to mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation of progenitor cells, and has been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function. The rs570613 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 4 of GATA3 was previously found to be associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project and in pooled analysis of two case-control studies from Norway and Poland (P trend = 0.004), with some evidence for a stronger association with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours [Garcia-Closas M et al. (2007) Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2269-2275]. We genotyped GATA3 rs570613 in 6,388 cases and 4,995 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and 5,617 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). We found no association between this SNP and breast cancer risk in BCAC cases overall (ORper-allele = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.05), in ER negative BCAC cases (ORper-allele = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91-1.13), in BRCA1 mutation carriers RRper-allele = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90-1.09) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (RRper-allele = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.07). We conclude that there is no evidence that either GATA3 rs570613, or any variant in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, is associated with breast cancer risk in women. 
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