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  • Wallander, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Direct estimates of C : N ratios of ectomycorrhizal mycelia collected from Norway spruce forest soils
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Soil Biology & Biochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0038-0717. ; 35:7, s. 997-999
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Direct estimates of C:N ratios of ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia growing in situ in forest soils have been obtained for the first time. The mycelial samples were collected from sand-filled mesh bags that were buried in the soil and incubated for 12-18 months in two Norway spruce forests in southern Sweden. At harvest the mesh bags were heavily colonized and the mycelia were extracted from the sand with water. The collected mycelia had earlier been identified as belonging to EM fungi based on their C isotopic composition. The mean value of the C:N ratio for mycelia was 20.2 +/- 0.8 (n = 25). EM mycelia collected at different soil depths (5, 15 and 30 cm) had similar C:N ratios. C:N ratios of microbial biomass obtained by fumigation - extraction of similar soils have usually been lower (6-13) so possible differences in the extraction efficiency of C and N from bacteria and fungi are discussed.
  • Wallenquist, Ulrika, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Grafted neural progenitors migrate and form neurons after experimental traumatic brain injury
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. - Amsterdam : IOS Press. - 0922-6028 .- 1878-3627. ; 27:4, s. 323-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSENeural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC) generate neurons and glia, a feature that makes them attractive for cell replacement therapies. However, efforts to transplant neural progenitors in animal models of brain injury typically result in high cell mortality and poor neuronal differentiation.METHODSIn an attempt to improve the outcome for grafted NSPC after controlled cortical impact we transplanted Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP)-positive NSPC into the contra lateral ventricle of mice one week after injury.RESULTSGrafted EGFP-NSPC readily migrated to the injured hemisphere where we analyzed the proportion of progenitors and differentiated progeny at different time points. Transplantation directly into the injured parenchyma, resulted in few brains with detectable EGFP-NSPC. On the contrary, in more than 90% of the mice that received a transplant into the lateral ventricle detectable EGFP-positive cells were found. The cells were integrated into the lateral ventricle wall of the un-injured hemisphere, throughout the corpus callosum, and in the cortical perilesional area. At one-week post transplantation, grafted cells that had migrated to the perilesion area mainly expressed markers of neural progenitors and neurons, while in the corpus callosum and the ventricular lining, grafted cells with a glial fate were more abundant. After 3 months, grafted cells in the perilesion area were less abundant whereas cells that had migrated to the walls of the third- and lateral- ventricle of the injured hemisphere were still detectable, suggesting that the injury site remained a hostile environment.CONCLUSIONTransplantation to the lateral ventricle, presumably for being a neurogenic region, provides a favorable environment improving the outcome for grafted NSPC both in term of their appearance at the cortical site of injury, and their acquisition of neural markers.
  • Wallenquist, Ulrika, 1975- (författare)
  • Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells as a Tool for Tissue Regeneration
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC) can differentiate to neurons and glial cells. NSPC are easily propagated in vitro and are therefore an attractive tool for tissue regeneration. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause for death and disabilities. A fundamental problem following TBI is tissue loss. Animal studies aiming at cell replacement have encountered difficulties in achieving sufficient graft survival and differentiation. To improve outcome of grafted cells after experimental TBI (controlled cortical impact, CCI) in mice, we compared two transplantation settings. NSPC were transplanted either directly upon CCI to the injured parenchyma, or one week after injury to the contralateral ventricle. Enhanced survival of transplanted cells and differentiation were seen when cells were deposited in the ventricle. To further enhance cell survival, efforts were made to reduce the inflammatory response to TBI by administration of ibuprofen to mice that had been subjected to CCI. Inflammation was reduced, as monitored by a decrease in inflammatory markers. Cell survival as well as differentiation to early neuroblasts seemed to be improved. To device a 3D system for future transplantation studies, NSPC from different ages were cultured in a hydrogel consisting of hyaluronan and collagen. Cells survived and proliferated in this culturing condition and the greatest neuronal differentiating ability was seen in cells from the newborn mouse brain. NSPC were also used in a model of peripheral nervous system injury, and xeno-transplanted to rats where the dorsal root ganglion had been removed. Cells survived and differentiated to neurons and glia, furthermore demonstrating their usefulness as a tool for tissue regeneration.
  • Welander, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Decolorization of synthetic and real textile wastewater by the use of white-rot fungi
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Enzyme and Microbial Technology. - : Elsevier Inc. - 0141-0229. ; 38:1, s. 94-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Batch and continuous reactors inoculated with white-rot fungi were operated in order to study decolorization of textile dyes. Synthetic wastewater containing either Reactive Blue 4 (a blue anthraquinone dye) or Reactive Red 2 (a red azo dye) was used during the first part of the study while real wastewater from a textile industry in Tanzania was used in the later part. Trametes versicolor was shown to decolorize both Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Red 2 if glucose was added as a carbon source. Reactive Blue 4 was also decolorized when the fungus was allowed to grow on birch wood discs in a continuous biological rotating contactor reactor. The absorbance at 595 nm, the wavelength at which the dye absorbs at a maximum, decreased by 70% during treatment. The initial dye concentration in the medium was 200 mg/l and the hydraulic retention time in the reactor 3 days. No glucose was added in this experiment. Changes of the absorbance in the UV range indicated that the aromatic structures of the dyes were altered. Real textile wastewater was decolorized by Pleurotus flabellatus growing on luffa sponge packed in a continuous reactor. The reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 25 h. The absorbance at 584 nm, the wavelength at which the wastewater absorbed the most, decreased from 0.3 in the inlet to approximately 0.1 in the effluent from the reactor.
  • WILD 2015 : Book of Abstracts
  • 2015
  • Proceedings (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • WILD 2015 is the second Workshop on Infant Language Development, held June 10-12 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. WILD 2015 was organized by Stockholm Babylab and the Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University. About 150 delegates met over three conference days, convening on infant speech perception, social factors of language acquisition, bilingual language development in infancy, early language comprehension and lexical development, neurodevelopmental aspects of language acquisition, methodological issues in infant language research, modeling infant language development, early speech production, and infant-directed speech. Keynote speakers were Alejandrina Cristia, Linda Polka, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Angela D. Friederici and Paula Fikkert.Organizing this conference would of course not have been possible without our funding agencies Vetenskapsrådet and Riksbankens Jubiléumsfond. We would like to thank Francisco Lacerda, Head of the Department of Linguistics, and the Departmental Board for agreeing to host WILD this year. We would also like to thank the administrative staff for their help and support in this undertaking, especially Ann Lorentz-Baarman and Linda Habermann.The WILD 2015 Organizing Committee: Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Elísabet Eir Cortes, Johan Sjons, Ulrika Marklund, Tove Gerholm, Kristina Nilsson Björkenstam and Monika Molnar.
  • Xue, Y. H., et al. (författare)
  • An approach to suppress the evolution of resistance in BRAF(V600E)-mutant cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nat Med. - 1078-8956. ; 23:8, s. 929-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The principles that govern the evolution of tumors exposed to targeted therapy are poorly understood. Here we modeled the selection and propagation of an amplification in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF(amp)) in patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) that were treated with a direct inhibitor of the kinase ERK, either alone or in combination with other ERK signaling inhibitors. Single-cell sequencing and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses mapped the emergence of extra-chromosomal amplification in parallel evolutionary trajectories that arose in the same tumor shortly after treatment. The evolutionary selection of BRAF(amp) was determined by the fitness threshold, the barrier that subclonal populations need to overcome to regain fitness in the presence of therapy. This differed for inhibitors of ERK signaling, suggesting that sequential monotherapy is ineffective and selects for a progressively higher BRAF copy number. Concurrent targeting of the RAF, MEK and ERK kinases, however, imposed a sufficiently high fitness threshold to prevent the propagation of subclones with high-level BRAF(amp). When administered on an intermittent schedule, this treatment inhibited tumor growth in 11/11 PDXs of lung cancer or melanoma without apparent toxicity in mice. Thus, gene amplification can be acquired and expanded through parallel evolution, enabling tumors to adapt while maintaining their intratumoral heterogeneity. Treatments that impose the highest fitness threshold will likely prevent the evolution of resistance-causing alterations and, thus, merit testing in patients.
  • Yu, Jin, et al. (författare)
  • Distinctive MS/MS Fragmentation Pathways of Glycopeptide-Generated Oxonium Ions Provide Evidence of the Glycan Structure.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany). - 1521-3765. ; 22:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Post-translational glycosylation of proteins play key roles in cellular processes and the site-specific characterisation of glycan structures is critical to understanding these events. Given the challenges regarding identification of glycan isomers, glycoproteomic studies generally rely on the assumption of conserved biosynthetic pathways. However, in a recent study, we found characteristically different HexNAc oxonium ion fragmentation patterns that depend on glycan structure. Such patterns could be used to distinguish between glycopeptide structural isomers. To acquire a mechanistic insight, deuterium-labelled glycopeptides were prepared and analysed. We found that the HexNAc-derived m/z 126 and 144 oxonium ions, differing in mass by H2 O, had completely different structures and that high-mannose N-glycopeptides generated abundant Hex-derived oxonium ions. We describe the oxonium ion decomposition mechanisms and the relative abundance of oxonium ions as a function of collision energy for a number of well-defined glycan structures, which provide important information for future glycoproteomic studies.
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