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Sökning: WFRF:(Nyberg Lars 1962 )

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  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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21.
  • Davies, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated modeling of flow and residence times at the catchment scale with multiple interacting pathways
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Water resources research. - 0043-1397. ; 49:8, s. 4738-4750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is still a need for catchment hydrological and transport models that properly integrate the effects of preferential flows while accounting for differences in velocities and celerities. A modeling methodology is presented here which uses particle tracking methods to simulate both flow and transport in multiple pathways in a single consistent solution. Water fluxes and storages are determined by the volume and density of particles and transport is attained by labeling the particles with information that may be tracked throughout the lifetime of that particle in the catchment. The methodology allows representation of preferential flows through the use of particle velocity distributions, and mixing between pathways can be achieved with pathway transition probabilities. A transferable 3-D modeling methodology is presented for the first time and applied to a unique step-shift isotope experiment that was carried out at the 0.63 ha G1 catchment in Gårdsjön, Sweden. This application highlights the importance of combining flow and transport in hydrological representations, and the importance of pathway velocity distributions and interactions in obtaining a satisfactory representation of the observations.
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22.
  • Evers, Mariele, et al. (författare)
  • Coherence and inconsistency of European instruments for integrated river basin management
  • 2011
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Room for the River projects increase the level of flood protection by enlarging theconveyance and reducing hydraulic roughness. As a consequence sediment transportcapacities are reduced as well, causing shoals and a reduced navigation channel. Thelarge number of Room for the River measures and European Framework Directive(WFD) measures, aiming at an increase of the ecological potential (e.g. sidechannels), will result in much dredging, if no structural measures are implemented.The expected amount of dredging will be too large to handle. Therefore research isexecuted to limit the dredging effort by executing mitigating measures. Old principlesof irrigation are given new attention to be applied to side channels and channelsbetween longitudinal dams and the river bank ('bank channels'). A new round ofnormalisation works may be necessary, to limit dredging activities. Boundaryconditions for river managemant are stopping autonomous bed degradation andeconomic sustainability of sets of measures that can cope with the hydromorphologicconsequences of the Room for the River and WFD measures
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23.
  • Evers, Mariele, et al. (författare)
  • Coherence and inconsistency of European instruments for integrated river basin management
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of River Basin Management. - Taylor & Francis. - 1571-5124. ; 11, s. 139-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large rivers are particularly under pressure due to multiple uses which often have severe impacts on ecosystems, or water quality and flow. Conflicting aims and a lack of integration and cooperation in planning and management are not beneficial to sustainable management. Important elements of integrated river basin management (IRBM) include both water quality aspects and floodplain and flood risk management. On the other hand, land use and land use planning are also both of great importance for sustainable river management. However, water management and land use planning are generally treated as two distinct issues in planning procedures and decision-making processes. Even water quality and flood risk issues are often handled by different authorities. Integrated management of transnational river basins is even more complicated and difficult. In Europe, there is a range of relevant Directives such as the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive and Habitat Directive. This paper illustrates how these legal and planning instruments influence the IRBM of large rivers. It analyses the potential synergies of the goals outlined in the directives and various related measures. Coherent but also inconsistent aspects of IRBM are identified against six different dimensions: political intention, legal, geographical, management, socio-economic and sustainability. The analysis shows potentials for synergies but also potential inconsistencies. We show that directives must be carefully coordinated to ensure coherent management and that synergies and site-specific goals, such as target areas, are important for sustainable management. Possible methodologies are described. IRBM can be considered as one possible approach towards sustainable development by coordinating different policies.
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24.
  • Evers, Mariele, et al. (författare)
  • Reducing flood risk by integrative land use planning
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 43rd ESReDA seminar on land use planning and risk-informed decision making. Saint-Étienne-du Rouvray, France, Oct 22-23, 2012.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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25.
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26.
  • Johansson, Magnus, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating the range of perspectives on lessons-learning from the 2005 storm in Sweden
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lessons learning from systematic analyses of past natural disasters is of great importance for future risk reduction and vulnerability management. It is one crucial piece of a puzzle towards disaster resilient societies, together with e.g. models of future emerging climate-related risks, globalization or demographic changes. Systematic analyses of impact and management of past events have commonly been produced in many sectors, but the knowledge is seldom shared outside the own organization or produced for other actors. LPHC (low probability high consequences) disasters usually comprise most analytical activities, since they often are met with surprise and highlight the failure to integrate resilience into normal societal planning. During the last 50 years, several LPHC events in Sweden have functioned as alarm clocks and entailed major changes and improvements in government policies or legislations, safety management systems, risk assessments, response training, stakeholder communication, etc. Such an event occurred in January 2005 when Northern Europe was confronted with one of the most severe storms in modern history. Accidents that caused 24 fatalities occurred (17 in Sweden), several regions in UK and Germany were flooded and extensive areas of storm-felled forests left nearly one million households in Scandinavia without electricity. In Sweden the quantity of storm-felled trees was equivalent to the combined volume felled by other storms during the whole of the 20th century, which caused exceptional damage to forests, roads, railways and electricity and telecommunications networks, including cell-phones. Follow-ups and evaluations at local level, as regulated by law, together with government commissions to central authorities and interest from research communities, have resulted in an extensive production of documented lessons learning. The production of in total 24 reports, 7 scientific articles and 2 economic reports from business associations divides thematically quite equally within coping capacity and exposed and susceptible elements. Most attention allots crisis management and response issues (45 %). Only one attempt is made to present a holistic view of the event and it is not a law bounded initiative. Evaluations from other recent events, e.g. the flood 2000 in Arvika and the landslide at Munkedal 2006, show the same clear focus on crisis management and less or none consideration taken to environmental, social or socioeconomic consequences. It reflects the traditional political financial will to invest in a high level on response capacity on expense of preventive work
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27.
  • Johansson, Magnus, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • How to measure efficiency in risk prevention?
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Risk assessment methods form corner stones in the striving to reduce risks and threats to human life and society. Proposed actions can be physical or non-physical and adopted or declined after political evaluation, with consideration taken to available resources and estimated effect on risk. To optimize and avoid regrettable actions, decision-makers are in need of well-founded analyses of how efficient different options might be. Analytically, there are several possible steps that can contribute. Firstly, the correlation between a measure and its effect should be based on causality, which often is difficult to establish quantitatively. High frequent accidents (e.g. traffic) can normally be treated statistically , while low frequent accidents with severe consequences (e.g. natural hazards) are more restricted to qualitative descriptions of correlation. Systematic monitoring of injury and damage data and gathering into databases, are a crucial activity for causality valuation. Secondly, economic valuation of effect is an important contribution in a cost-benefit perspective. Thirdly, a measure often brings several different effects and some may fall outside the actual purpose. An additional problem is how to handle effects that exert varied influence on different stakeholders or social groups in society. Fourthly, certain criteria are required for final prioritization. For instance, in analysis of goal fulfillment, effects are compared with politically decided quantified goals. In cases where basic data from steps 1-3 are incomplete, alternative criteria like “acceptable risk” might be necessary to agree about politically. To use similar approaches on how to describe and quantify effect correlations, promote gathered efforts at local level where risk reducing measures are decided upon by different actors and with regard to diverse local conditions. Tests of suitable methods and approaches to measure efficiency of planned or accomplished actions in gain for risk prevention, are described and discussed.
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28.
  • Johansson, Magnus, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Learning lessons from natural disasters sectorial or holistic perspectives?
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lessons learning from systematic analyses of past natural disasters is of great importance for future risk reduction and vulnerability management. It is one crucial piece of a puzzle towards disaster resilient societies, together with e.g. models of future emerging climate-related risks, globalization or demographic changes. Systematic analyses of impact and management of past events have commonly been produced in many sectors, but the knowledge is seldom shared outside the own organization or produced for other actors. To increase the availability of reports and documents, the Swedish Rescue Services Agency has created the Swedish Natural Hazards Information System, in accordance with a government commission from 2005. The system gathers accident reports, investigations and in-depth analyses, together with societal additional costs and mappings of consequences from central and local governments, NGOs and private actors. Evaluation of the collection reveals large differences in quality, systematic approach, depth and extent, clearly consistent with the lack of coherent harmonization of investigation and reporting approaches. Type of hazard, degree of impact and time elapsed since present are decisive for the collectedvolume. LPHC (low probability high consequences) disasters usually comprise most data and analytical activities, since they often are met with surprise and highlight the failure to integrate resilience into normal societal planning. During the last 50 years, several LPHC events in Sweden have functioned as alarm clocks and entailed major changes and improvements in government policies or legislations, safety management systems, risk assessments,response training, stakeholder communication, etc. Such an event occurred in January 2005 when Northern Europe was confronted with one of the most severe storms in modern history. Accidents that caused 24 fatalities occurred (17 in Sweden), several regions in UK and Germany were flooded and extensive areas of storm-felled forests left nearly one million households in Scandinavia without electricity. In Sweden the quantity of storm-felled trees was equivalent to the combined volume felled by other storms during the whole of the 20th century, which caused exceptional damage to forests, roads, railways and electricity and telecommunications networks, including cellphones. Follow-ups and evaluations at local level, as regulated by law, together with government commissions to central authorities and interest from research communities, have resulted in an extensive production of documented lessons learning. Our case study describes their thematic extent, identifies different perspectives in relation to their basis for analyses, emphasizes the complementary need of a holistic perspective and puts the Swedish systematic procedure into an international comparison
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29.
  • Johansson, Magnus, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Social learning in education – an important step in practical integration of preventive risk reduction and adaptation to climate change
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential of linking the preventive phase of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) with the adaptation in human society to forecasted consequences from climate change, has received growing acceptance internationally, but the integration of both fields is still at an embryonic stage. Integration in this case implies transdisciplinary approaches in complex fields where liabilities and stakeholders normally are found in different sectors and levels in society. For integration to be successful, a first step is to create platforms and contexts where participants may generate raised awareness about each other’s roles and evolve a shared problem identification. Social learning is a concept that has been used in many different contexts where uncertainty and change are crucial and challenging. It has earlier been linked as a suitable approach to issues such as public participation, governance or natural resource management. Here it is used in education, gathering among others stakeholders working within the fields of Flood Risk Management, DRR and Climate Change Adaptation at local or regional level around the two Swedish lakes Vänern and Mälaren. Teaching arrangements and didactic elements are described for the two pilot-courses that were held 2009-2010. The academic institutional arrangements favoured an open exchange and knowledge building, with local examples of management and strategies repeatedly in focus during several study visits in different cities along the shoreline. The elements of social learning facilitated the build-up of shared holistic perspectives, identified areas in need of development or research efforts and contributed to informal as well as formal relationships among participants.
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30.
  • Johansson, Magnus, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Using education and social learning in capacity building- the IntECR concept
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Disaster Prevention and Management. - Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 0965-3562 .- 1758-6100. ; 22:1, s. 17-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose – The aim of this paper is to present a concept where social learning is used in education. Thematically, the concept is suitable for complex, interdisciplinary, societal challenges with a high degree of uncertainty regarding future changes. It is exemplified here by the need to link disaster risk reduction (DRR) with climate change adaptation (CCA) and flood risk management (FRM). The concept answers to the variety of adopted solutions and build-up of knowledge that exist, as a consequence of far-reaching local liabilities and initiatives. The concept advocates building of platforms and procedures where managers, stakeholders, researchers, policy makers, and regular students can meet, interact and learn from local examples.Design/methodology/approach – The concept IntECR (integrated education, research and collaboration) has been tested in two courses during 2009 and 2010 around the Swedish lakes Vanern and Malaren. Seminars and field visits were arranged in ten different cities. Participants replied anonymously to a course evaluation and were questioned in groups about their perceived benefit from the concept.Findings – Informal networking, holistic perspective, shared problem identification and the positive possibility to study several examples of local management in arrangements with high degree of structural openness, were mentioned by the participants as positive outcome of the concept.Originality/value – The use of this educational concept aims to increase the adaptive capacity of societal entities through raised capacity of their individual members. The applied example is timely, relevant and a contribution to DRR and CCA
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  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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