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  • Neiman, Maja, et al. (författare)
  • Selectivity analysis of single binder assays used in plasma protein profiling
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ; 13:23-24, s. 3406-3410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increasing availability of antibodies toward human proteins enables broad explorations of the proteomic landscape in cells, tissues, and body fluids. This includes assays with antibody suspension bead arrays that generate protein profiles of plasma samples by flow cytometer analysis. However, antibody selectivity is context dependent so it is necessary to corroborate on-target detection over off-target binding. To address this, we describe a concept to directly verify interactions from antibody-coupled beads by analysis of their eluates by Western blots and MS. We demonstrate selective antibody binding in complex samples with antibodies toward a set of chosen proteins with different abundance in plasma and serum, and illustrate the need to adjust sample and bead concentrations accordingly. The presented approach will serve as an important tool for resolving differential protein profiles from antibody arrays within plasma biomarker discoveries.
  • Nygren, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose flux is normalized by compensatory hyperinsulinaemia in growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in healthy subjects, while skeletal muscle protein synthesis remains unchanged.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Clinical Science. - London, United Kingdom : Portland Press. - 0143-5221 .- 1470-8736. ; 102:4, s. 457-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this present investigation was to study the relationship between the reduction in insulin sensitivity accompanying 5 days of treatment with growth hormone (GH; 0.05 mg.24 h(-1).kg(-1)) and intracellular substrate oxidation rates in six healthy subjects, while maintaining glucose flux by a constant glucose infusion and adjusting insulin infusion rates to achieve normoglycaemia (feedback clamp). Protein synthesis rates in skeletal muscle (flooding dose of L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine) were determined under these conditions. We also compared changes in insulin sensitivity after GH treatment with simultaneous changes in energy requirements, protein synthesis rates, nitrogen balance, 3-methylhistidine excretion in urine, body composition and the hormonal milieu. After GH treatment, 70% more insulin was required to maintain normoglycaemia (P<0.01). The ratio between glucose infusion rate and serum insulin levels decreased by 34% at the two levels of glucose infusion tested (P<0.05). Basal levels of C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3 increased almost 2-fold, while levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, GH and IGF-binding protein-1 remained unchanged. Non-esterified fatty acid levels decreased (P<0.05). In addition, 24 h urinary nitrogen excretion decreased by 26% (P<0.01) after GH treatment, while skeletal muscle protein synthesis and 3-methylhistidine excretion in urine remained unchanged. Energy expenditure increased by 5% (P<0.05) after treatment, whereas fat and carbohydrate oxidation were unaltered. In conclusion, when glucose flux was normalized by compensatory hyperinsulinaemia under conditions of GH-induced insulin resistance, intracellular rates of oxidation of glucose and fat remained unchanged. The nitrogen retention accompanying GH treatment seems to be due largely to improved nitrogen balance in non-muscle tissue.
  • Padhan, Narendra, et al. (författare)
  • High sensitivity isoelectric focusing to establish a signaling biomarker for the diagnosis of human colorectal cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) involves recurrent amplifications/mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream signal transducers of the Ras pathway, KRAS and BRAF. Whether genetic events predicted to result in increased and constitutive signaling indeed lead to enhanced biological activity is often unclear and, due to technical challenges, unexplored. Here, we investigated proliferative signaling in CRC using a highly sensitive method for protein detection. The aim of the study was to determine whether multiple changes in proliferative signaling in CRC could be combined and exploited as a "complex biomarker" for diagnostic purposes. Methods: We used robotized capillary isoelectric focusing as well as conventional immunoblotting for the comprehensive analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways converging on extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT, phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and c-SRC in normal mucosa compared with CRC stage II and IV. Computational analyses were used to test different activity patterns for the analyzed signal transducers. Results: Signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation were differently dysregulated in CRC and, unexpectedly, several were downregulated in disease. Thus, levels of activated ERK1 (pERK1), but not pERK2, decreased in stage II and IV while total ERK1/2 expression remained unaffected. In addition, c-SRC expression was lower in CRC compared with normal tissues and phosphorylation on the activating residue Y418 was not detected. In contrast, PLC gamma 1 and AKT expression levels were elevated in disease. Immunoblotting of the different signal transducers, run in parallel to capillary isoelectric focusing, showed higher variability and lower sensitivity and resolution. Computational analyses showed that, while individual signaling changes lacked predictive power, using the combination of changes in three signaling components to create a "complex biomarker" allowed with very high accuracy, the correct diagnosis of tissues as either normal or cancerous. Conclusions: We present techniques that allow rapid and sensitive determination of cancer signaling that can be used to differentiate colorectal cancer from normal tissue.
  • Rooyackers, Olav, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin stimulated glucose disposal in peripheral tissues studied with microdialysis and stable isotope tracers
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition. - Edinburgh, United Kingdom : Churchill Livingstone. - 0261-5614 .- 1532-1983. ; 23:4, s. 743-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & aims: Methods to study glucose kinetics in vivo in specific tissues or tissue beds in humans are often not feasible due to invasiveness or costs of equipment needed. Here we investigate whether the loss (fractional extraction) of 2H7-glucose infused via a microdialysis catheter can be used to study glucose disposal in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue.Methods and results: A perfusion period of 2 h was needed to ensure an isotopic steady state in the microdialysis catheters in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In six healthy volunteers the fractional extraction increased during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Following 48 h of starvation in the same subjects, insulin was not able to increase the fractional extraction of 2H7-glucose from the microdialysis in comparison with a baseline measurement.Conclusions: In response to insulin infusion, the fractional extraction of 2H7-glucose from a microdialysis catheter increases in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue and this increase is blunted during insulin resistance induced by starvation. These results validate that the fractional extraction of a glucose tracers infused via microdialysis can be used as an index of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues or tissue beds.
  • Senkowski, Wojciech, et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Gene Expression Profiling Platform for Identification of Context-Dependent Drug Responses in Multicellular Tumor Spheroids
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 23:11, s. 1428-1438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer cell lines grown as two-dimensional (2D) cultures have been an essential model for studying cancer biology and anticancer drug discovery. However, 2D cancer cell cultures have major limitations, as they do not closely mimic the heterogeneity and tissue context of in vivo tumors. Developing three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures, such as multicellular tumor spheroids, has the potential to address some of these limitations. Here, we combined a high-throughput gene expression profiling method with a tumor spheroid-based drug-screening assay to identify context-dependent treatment responses. As a proof of concept, we examined drug responses of quiescent cancer cells to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) inhibitors. Use of multicellular tumor spheroids led to discovery that the mevalonate pathway is upregulated in quiescent cells during OXPHOS inhibition, and that OXPHOS inhibitors and mevalonate pathway inhibitors were synergistically toxic to quiescent spheroids. This work illustrates how 3D cellular models yield functional and mechanistic insights not accessible via 2D cultures.
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