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  • Senkowski, Wojciech, et al. (författare)
  • Three-Dimensional Cell Culture-Based Screening Identifies the Anthelmintic Drug Nitazoxanide as a Candidate for Treatment of Colorectal Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1535-7163 .- 1538-8514. ; 14:6, s. 1504-1516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Because dormant cancer cells in hypoxic and nutrient-deprived regions of solid tumors provide a major obstacle to treatment, compounds targeting those cells might have clinical benefits. Here, we describe a high-throughput drug screening approach, using glucose-deprived multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) with inner hypoxia, to identify compounds that specifically target this cell population. We used a concept of drug repositioning-using known molecules for new indications. This is a promising strategy to identify molecules for rapid clinical advancement. By screening 1,600 compounds with documented clinical history, we aimed to identify candidates with unforeseen potential for repositioning as anticancer drugs. Our screen identified five molecules with pronounced MCTS-selective activity: nitazoxanide, niclosamide, closantel, pyrvinium pamoate, and salinomycin. Herein, we show that all five compounds inhibit mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that cancer cells in low glucose concentrations depend on oxidative phosphorylation rather than solely glycolysis. Importantly, continuous exposure to the compounds was required to achieve effective treatment. Nitazoxanide, an FDA-approved antiprotozoal drug with excellent pharmacokinetic and safety profile, is the only molecule among the screening hits that reaches high plasma concentrations persisting for up to a few hours after single oral dose. Nitazoxanide activated the AMPK pathway and downregulated c-Myc, mTOR, and Wnt signaling at clinically achievable concentrations. Nitazoxanide combined with the cytotoxic drug irinotecan showed anticancer activity in vivo. We here report that the FDA-approved anthelmintic drug nitazoxanide could be a potential candidate for advancement into cancer clinical trials. (C) 2015 AACR.
  • Suzuki, C, et al. (författare)
  • The initial change in tumor size predicts response and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with combination chemotherapy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 23:4, s. 948-954
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: To determine whether the change in tumor diameters at the first follow-up computed tomography (CT) examination after baseline examination (first change) correlates with outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with combination chemotherapy.PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first change was analyzed in a multicenter randomized phase III trial (Nordic VI, N = 567) comparing first-line irinotecan with either bolus or infused 5-fluorouracil. Cox proportional hazards multiple regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses after correction for guarantee-time bias were carried out to evaluate correlations between first change, objective response according to RECIST 1.0, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).RESULTS: The hazard ratios for PFS and OS decreased along with first change. A decrease between 10% and <30%, albeit RECIST does not regard this as a partial response, was a positive prognostic factor for PFS and OS. Patients who had new lesions or unequivocal progression of nonmeasurable lesions had a worse prognosis than those with only an increase in size of >20%.CONCLUSIONS: The change in tumor size at the first follow-up CT is strongly prognostic for PFS and OS in mCRC.
  • Thorell, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Intensive insulin treatment in critically ill trauma patients normalizes glucose by reducing endogenous glucose production
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Chevy Chase, USA : The Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 89:11, s. 5382-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Critical illness is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Intensive insulin treatment to normalize blood glucose during feeding has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality in patients in intensive care. The mechanisms behind the glucose-controlling effects of insulin in stress are not well understood. Six previously healthy, severely traumatized patients (injury severity score > 15) were studied early (24-48 h) after trauma. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body glucose disposal (WGD) were measured (6,6-(2)H(2)-glucose) at basal, during total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and during TPN plus insulin to normalize blood glucose (TPN+I). Six matched volunteers served as controls. At basal and TPN, concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher in patients (P < 0.05). During TPN+I, insulin concentrations were 30-fold higher in patients. At basal, WGD and EGP were 30% higher in patients (P < 0.05). During TPN, EGP decreased in both groups but less in patients, resulting in 110% higher EGP than controls (P < 0.05). Normoglycemia coincided with reduced EGP, resulting in similar rates in both groups. WGD did not change during TPN or TPN+I and was not different between the groups. In conclusion, in healthy subjects, euglycemia is maintained during TPN at physiological insulin concentrations by a reduction of EGP, whereas WGD is maintained at basal levels. In traumatized patients, hyperglycemia is due to increased EGP. In contrast to controls, normalization of glucose concentration during TPN needs high insulin infusion rates and is accounted for by a reduction in EGP, whereas WGD is not increased.
  • von Heideman, A, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of drug interactions in the established FEC regimen in primary cultures of tumour cells from patients
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 11:10, s. 1301-1307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy using multi-drug regimens is considered more active than single-agent therapy. This may be due to synergistic interactions or, simply, a higher probability of administering an active agent. We investigated in vitro the type of drug interactions in a recognized regimen in relationship to tumour type and drug sensitivity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The possibility of synergistic and additive interactions between individual cytotoxic drugs was investigated for the component drugs of the established FEC regimen, i.e., 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, in 243 patient tumour samples representing various drug sensitivity using the non-clonogenic fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. RESULTS: Using a cell survival of < or = 50% as a limit for drug activity and sample sensitivity, the overall response rates to the most active single drug (Dmax) and the combination were 56% and 64%, respectively, with a distribution among diagnoses similar to that in the clinic. For 86% of the samples there was concordance with respect to judgement of activity using either Dmax or the combination. For samples being sensitive to at least one single drug, 95% were also sensitive to the combination whereas for samples with insignificant Dmax effect, only 2% were sensitive to the combination. In samples with modest Dmax effects, i.e., cell survival in the range > 50%- < or = 80%, 45% responded to the combination. The effect of the combination was generally well predicted from the Dmax effect. CONCLUSIONS: The superior antitumour effect of drug combinations compared with single drugs may be due to the higher chance of selecting an active agent. However, for intermediately sensitive tumours, additional interaction effects of a combination may be of clinical significance.
  • Zhang, Xiaonan, et al. (författare)
  • Induction of mitochondrial dysfunction as a strategy for targeting tumour cells in metabolically compromised microenvironments.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 5:Feb 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abnormal vascularization of solid tumours results in the development of microenvironments deprived of oxygen and nutrients that harbour slowly growing and metabolically stressed cells. Such cells display enhanced resistance to standard chemotherapeutic agents and repopulate tumours after therapy. Here we identify the small molecule VLX600 as a drug that is preferentially active against quiescent cells in colon cancer 3-D microtissues. The anticancer activity is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration, leading to bioenergetic catastrophe and tumour cell death. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. Importantly, VLX600 displays tumour growth inhibition in vivo. Our findings suggest that tumour cells in metabolically compromised microenvironments have a limited ability to respond to decreased mitochondrial function, and suggest a strategy for targeting the quiescent populations of tumour cells for improved cancer treatment.
  • Åleskog, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Rapamycin shows anticancer activity in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro, as single agent and in drug combination
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Leukemia and Lymphoma. - 1042-8194 .- 1029-2403. ; 49:12, s. 2333-2343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin and its analogues show promising anticancer activity in various experimental tumor models and are presently evaluated in clinical trials. We, here, evaluated the in vitro activity of rapamycin with regard to tumor-type specificity and possible mechanisms of drug resistance in 97 tumor cell samples from patients and in a resistance-based cell line panel, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Rapamycin was dose-dependently cytotoxic in patient tumor cells and in cell lines. In primary cells, rapamycin was more active in hematological than in solid tumor samples, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphocytic leukemia being the most sensitive tumor types. Considerable inter-individual differences in sensitivity were apparent among CLL samples, but no difference was observed between IGHV mutated and unmutated CLL samples, whereas a tendency to lower rapamycin sensitivity was indicated for samples displaying poor-prognostic genomic markers. Combination experiments in CLL cells indicated that rapamycin acted synergistically with vincristine, cisplatin, chlorambucil and taxotere. These results and the clinically-experienced good tolerance to rapamycin analogues encourage clinical studies of rapamycin in CLL treatment as single agent but also in combination with, e.g., vincristine and chlorambucil.
  • Aftab, Obaid, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Label free quantification of time evolving morphologies using time-lapse video microscopy enables identity control of cell lines and discovery of chemically induced differential activity in iso-genic cell line pairs
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. - 0169-7439 .- 1873-3239. ; 141, s. 24-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Label free time-lapse video microscopy based monitoring of time evolving cell population morphology has potential to offer a simple and cost effective method for identity control of cell lines. Such morphology monitoring also has potential to offer discovery of chemically induced differential changes between pairs of cell lines of interest, for example where one in a pair of cell lines is normal/sensitive and the other malignant/resistant. A new simple algorithm, pixel histogram hierarchy comparison (PHHC), for comparison of time evolving morphologies (TEM) in phase contrast time-lapse microscopy movies was applied to a set of 10 different cell lines and three different iso-genic colon cancer cell line pairs, each pair being genetically identical except for a single mutation. PHHC quantifies differences in morphology by comparing pixel histogram intensities at six different resolutions. Unsupervised clustering and machine learning based classification methods were found to accurately identify cell lines, including their respective iso-genic variants, through time-evolving morphology. Using this experimental setting, drugs with differential activity in iso-genic cell line pairs were likewise identified. Thus, this is a cost effective and expedient alternative to conventional molecular profiling techniques and might be useful as part of the quality control in research incorporating cell line models, e.g. in any cell/tumor biology or toxicology project involving drug/agent differential activity in pairs of cell line models.
  • Andersson, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • Mebendazole is unique among tubulin-active drugs in activating the MEK-ERK pathway
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently showed that the anti-helminthic compound mebendazole (MBZ) has immunomodulating activity in monocyte/macrophage models and induces ERK signalling. In the present study we investigated whether MBZ induced ERK activation is shared by other tubulin binding agents (TBAs) and if it is observable also in other human cell types. Curated gene signatures for a panel of TBAs in the LINCS Connectivity Map (CMap) database showed a unique strong negative correlation of MBZ with MEK/ERK inhibitors indicating ERK activation also in non-haematological cell lines. L1000 gene expression signatures for MBZ treated THP-1 monocytes also connected negatively to MEK inhibitors. MEK/ERK phosphoprotein activity testing of a number of TBAs showed that only MBZ increased the activity in both THP-1 monocytes and PMA differentiated macrophages. Distal effects on ERK phosphorylation of the substrate P90RSK and release of IL1B followed the same pattern. The effect of MBZ on MEK/ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by RAF/MEK/ERK inhibitors in THP-1 models, CD3/IL2 stimulated PBMCs and a MAPK reporter HEK-293 cell line. MBZ was also shown to increase ERK activity in CD4+ T-cells from lupus patients with known defective ERK signalling. Given these mechanistic features MBZ is suggested suitable for treatment of diseases characterized by defective ERK signalling, notably difficult to treat autoimmune diseases.
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