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Sökning: WFRF:(O''Brien John)

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81.
  • Wang, Xin, et al. (författare)
  • Global burden of respiratory infections associated with seasonal influenza in children under 5 years in 2018 : a systematic review and modelling study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Global Health. - : Elsevier. - 2214-109X. ; 8:4, s. E497-E510
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Seasonal influenza virus is a common cause of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in ung children. In 2008, we estimated that 20 million influenza-virus-associated ALRI and 1 million fluenza-virus-associated severe ALRI occurred in children under 5 years globally. Despite this bstantial burden, only a few low-income and middle-income countries have adopted routine influenza ccination policies for children and, where present, these have achieved only low or unknown levels of ccine uptake. Moreover, the influenza burden might have changed due to the emergence and rculation of influenza A/H1N1pdm09. We aimed to incorporate new data to update estimates of the obal number of cases, hospital admissions, and mortality from influenza-virus-associated respiratory fections in children under 5 years in 2018.Methods: We estimated the regional and global burden of influenza-associated respiratory infections in ildren under 5 years from a systematic review of 100 studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec , 2018, and a further 57 high-quality unpublished studies. We adapted the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to sess the risk of bias. We estimated incidence and hospitalisation rates of influenza-virus-associated spiratory infections by severity, case ascertainment, region, and age. We estimated in-hospital deaths om influenza virus ALRI by combining hospital admissions and in-hospital case-fatality ratios of fluenza virus ALRI. We estimated the upper bound of influenza virus-associated ALRI deaths based on e number of in-hospital deaths, US paediatric influenza-associated death data, and population-based ildhood all-cause pneumonia mortality data in six sites in low-income and lower-middle-income untries.Findings: In 2018, among children under 5 years globally, there were an estimated 109.5 million fluenza virus episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 63.1-190.6), 10.1 million influenza-virus-associated ALRI ses (6.8-15.1); 870 000 influenza-virus-associated ALRI hospital admissions (543 000-1 415 000), 15 300 -hospital deaths (5800-43 800), and up to 34 800 (13 200-97 200) overall influenza-virus-associated ALRI deaths. Influenza virus accounted for 7% of ALRI cases, 5% of ALRI hospital admissions, and 4% of ALRI deaths in children under 5 years. About 23% of the hospital admissions and 36% of the in-hospital deaths were in infants under 6 months. About 82% of the in-hospital deaths occurred in low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Interpretation: A large proportion of the influenza-associated burden occurs among young infants and in low-income and lower middle-income countries. Our findings provide new and important evidence for maternal and paediatric influenza immunisation, and should inform future immunisation policy particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. 
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82.
  • Wang, Yifan, et al. (författare)
  • The BRCA1-Δ11q alternative splice isoform bypasses germline mutations and promotes therapeutic resistance to PARP inhibition and cisplatin
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 0008-5472. ; 76:9, s. 2778-2790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast and ovarian cancer patients harboring BRCA1/2 germline mutations have clinically benefitted from therapy with PARP inhibitor (PARPi) or platinum compounds, but acquired resistance limits clinical impact. In this study, we investigated the impact of mutations on BRCA1 isoform expression and therapeutic response. Cancer cell lines and tumors harboring mutations in exon 11 of BRCA1 express a BRCA1-Δ11q splice variant lacking the majority of exon 11. The introduction of frameshift mutations to exon 11 resulted in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of full-length, but not the BRCA1-Δ11q isoform. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing as well as overexpression experiments revealed that the BRCA1-Δ11q protein was capable of promoting partial PARPi and cisplatin resistance relative to full-length BRCA1, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, spliceosome inhibitors reduced BRCA1- Δ11q levels and sensitized cells carrying exon 11 mutations to PARPi treatment. Taken together, our results provided evidence that cancer cells employ a strategy to remove deleterious germline BRCA1 mutations through alternative mRNA splicing, giving rise to isoforms that retain residual activity and contribute to therapeutic resistance.
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83.
  • Wardlaw, Joanna M., et al. (författare)
  • Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 12:8, s. 822-838
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no symptoms. SVD frequently coexists with neurodegenerative disease, and can exacerbate cognitive deficits, physical disabilities, and other symptoms of neurodegeneration. Terminology and definitions for imaging the features of SVD vary widely, which is also true for protocols for image acquisition and image analysis. This lack of consistency hampers progress in identifying the contribution of SVD to the pathophysiology and clinical features of common neurodegenerative diseases. We are an international working group from the Centres of Excellence in Neurodegeneration. We completed a structured process to develop definitions and imaging standards for markers and consequences of SVD. We aimed to achieve the following: first, to provide a common advisory about terms and definitions for features visible on MRI; second, to suggest minimum standards for image acquisition and analysis; third, to agree on standards for scientific reporting of changes related to SVD on neuroimaging; and fourth, to review emerging imaging methods for detection and quantification of preclinical manifestations of SVD. Our findings and recommendations apply to research studies, and can be used in the clinical setting to standardise image interpretation, acquisition, and reporting. This Position Paper summarises the main outcomes of this international effort to provide the STandards for Reporting Vascular changes on nEuroimaging (STRIVE).
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84.
  • Xie, Yongjing, et al. (författare)
  • Electrostatic interactions play an essential role in the binding of oleic acid with a-lactalbumin in the HAMLET-like complex: A study using charge-specific chemical modifications
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proteins. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0887-3585. ; 81:1, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human a-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and its analogs are partially unfolded protein-oleic acid (OA) complexes that exhibit selective tumoricidal activity normally absent in the native protein itself. To understand the nature of the interaction between protein and OA moieties, charge-specific chemical modifications of lysine side chains involving citraconylation, acetylation, and guanidination were employed and the biophysical and biological properties were probed. Upon converting the original positively-charged lysine residues to negatively-charged citraconyl or neutral acetyl groups, the binding of OA to protein was eliminated, as were any cytotoxic activities towards osteosarcoma cells. Retention of the positive charges by converting lysine residues to homoarginine groups (guanidination); however, yielded unchanged binding of OA to protein and identical tumoricidal activity to that displayed by the wild-type a-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex. With the addition of OA, the wild-type and guanidinated a-lactalbumin proteins underwent substantial conformational changes, such as partial unfolding, loss of tertiary structure, but retention of secondary structure. In contrast, no significant conformational changes were observed in the citraconylated and acetylated a-lactalbumins, most likely because of the absence of OA binding. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positively-charged basic groups on a-lactalbumin and the negatively-charged carboxylate groups on OA molecules play an essential role in the binding of OA to a-lactalbumin and that these interactions appear to be as important as hydrophobic interactions. Proteins 2013. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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85.
  • Yarnall, Alison J, et al. (författare)
  • Characterizing mild cognitive impairment in incident Parkinson disease : the ICICLE-PD study
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 82:4, s. 16-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson disease (PD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed incident PD cases and the associations with a panel of biomarkers.METHODS: Between June 2009 and December 2011, 219 subjects with PD and 99 age-matched controls participated in clinical and neuropsychological assessments as part of a longitudinal observational study. Consenting individuals underwent structural MRI, lumbar puncture, and genotyping for common variants of COMT, MAPT, SNCA, BuChE, EGF, and APOE. PD-MCI was defined with reference to the new Movement Disorder Society criteria.RESULTS: The frequency of PD-MCI was 42.5% using level 2 criteria at 1.5 SDs below normative values. Memory impairment was the most common domain affected, with 15.1% impaired at 1.5 SDs. Depression scores were significantly higher in those with PD-MCI than the cognitively normal PD group. A significant correlation was found between visual Pattern Recognition Memory and cerebrospinal β-amyloid 1-42 levels (β standardized coefficient = 0.350; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and education in a linear regression model, with lower β-amyloid 1-42 and 1-40 levels observed in those with PD-MCI. Voxel-based morphometry did not reveal any areas of significant gray matter loss in participants with PD-MCI compared with controls, and no specific genotype was associated with PD-MCI at the 1.5-SD threshold.CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of newly diagnosed PD participants, PD-MCI is common and significantly correlates with lower cerebrospinal β-amyloid 1-42 and 1-40 levels. Future longitudinal studies should enable us to determine those measures predictive of cognitive decline.
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86.
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87.
  • Zanchetti, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering for prevention of strokes and cognitive decline: a review of available trial evidence.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1473-5598. ; 32:9, s. 1741-1750
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well established by a large number of randomized controlled trials that lowering blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by drugs are powerful means to reduce stroke incidence, but the optimal BP and LDL-C levels to be achieved are largely uncertain. Concerning BP targets, two hypotheses are being confronted: first, the lower the BP, the better the treatment outcome, and second, the hypothesis that too low BP values are accompanied by a lower benefit and even higher risk. It is also unknown whether BP lowering and LDL-C lowering have additive beneficial effects for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and whether these treatments can prevent cognitive decline after stroke.
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88.
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89.
  • Zhang, Guojie, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1311-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.
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  • Resultat 81-89 av 89
  • Föregående 1...345678[9]
 
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