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  • Eriksson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Circumstances surrounding falls in patients with dementia in a psychogeriatric ward
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943. ; 49:1, s. 80-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • People with dementia have an increased risk of falling. Predisposing factors explain only a small part of the variation in falls among people with dementia. The purpose of this study was to explore circumstances that are hazardous regarding falls among people with dementia at a psychogeriatric ward. The study comprised 191 participants of whom seventy-five fell a total of 229 times. Prospective data were collected on falls. Hazardous circumstances were calculated in two ways. Firstly possible differences between day/night falls and women/men falls were calculated based on the 229 falls. Secondly time to first fall was used to estimate hazardous circumstances and was based on 75 falls. This study shows a fall rate that was equally high during the night and the day. The proportion of diurnal rhythm disturbances and activity disturbances was higher for falls at night than for falls during the day. Circumstances associated with an increased risk of falls, as shown by a short time to first fall, were anxiety, darkness, not wearing any shoes and, for women, urinary tract infection. All of these are circumstances that should be considered in future fall-related research among people with dementia.
  • Eriksson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of three statistical methods for analysis of fall predictors in people with dementia : negative binomial regression (NBR), regression tree (RT), and partial least squares regression (PLSR)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943. ; 49:3, s. 383-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Searching for background factors associated with falls in people with dementia is difficult because the population is heterogeneous. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of three statistical methods for analysis of fall predictors in people with dementia. NBR, RT and PLSR analyses were compared. Data used for the comparison were from a prospective cohort study of 192 patients at a psychogeriatric ward, specializing in patients with cognitive impairment and related behavioral and psychological symptoms. Seventy-eight of these patients fell a total of 238 times. PLSR and RT analyses are directed at finding patterns among predictor variables related to outcome, whereas an NBR model is directed at finding predictor variables that, independent of other variables, are related to the outcome. The NBR analysis explained an additional 10–15% variation compared with the PLSR and RT analyses. The results of PLSR and RT show a similar plausible pattern of predictor variables. However, none of these techniques appears to be sufficient in itself. In order to gain patterns of explanatory variables, RT would be a good complement to NBR for analysis of fall predictors.
  • Eriksson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for falls in people with and without a diagnosis of dementia living in residential care facilities : a prospective study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943. ; 46:3, s. 293-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • People with dementia are at increased risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to identify predisposing risk factors for falls in older people with and without a diagnose of dementia living in residential care facilities, and to compare the results. Eighty-three residents without dementia (mean age ± S.D.; 83.5 ± 7.1 years) and 103 with dementia (83.6 ± 6.3 years) in Umeå, Sweden, participated. The baseline assessment included probable risk factors like walking ability, diagnoses and treatment with drugs. The follow-up period was 6 months. In people with dementia, the fall rate was higher (crude incidence rate ratio 2.55, 95% CI 1.60–4.08) and a larger proportion experienced falls (62% versus 41%). In the group without dementia 54.8% of the variation in falls was explained by a model including orthostatism, “women walking with aid”, and treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In the group with dementia 25.5% of the variation in falls was explained by a model including “man walking with aid”. Our results show that with the same set of common risk factors for falls a considerably lower proportion of the variation in falls can be explained in the group of people with dementia.
  • Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine, et al. (författare)
  • Reach the Person behind the Dementia Physical Therapists' Reflections and Strategies when Composing Physical Training
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public library science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia. The interviews were analyzed with a modified Grounded Theory method with focus on constant comparisons. To increase trustworthiness the study used triangulation within investigators and member checking. The core category "Discover and act in the moment-learn over time" reflects how the PTs continuously developed their own learning in an iterative process. They built on previous knowledge to communicate with residents and staff and to tailor the high intensity training in relation to each individual at that time point. The category "Be on your toes" highlights how the PTs searched for sufficient information about each individual, before and during training, by eliciting the person's current status from staff and by interpreting the person's body language. The category "Build a bond with a palette of strategies" describes the importance of confirmation to build up trust and the use of group members and the room to create an interplay between exercise and social interaction. These findings highlight the continuous iterative process of building on existing knowledge, sharing and reflecting, being alert to any alterations needed for individuals that day, communication skills (both with residents and staff) and building a relationship and trust with residents in the effective delivery of high intensity functional exercise to older people living with dementia in care settings.
  • Hasselgren, Låtta, et al. (författare)
  • Is leg muscle strength correlated with functional balance and mobility among inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943. ; 52:3, s. e220-e225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Determinants of functional balance and mobility have rarely been investigated in geriatric wards. This study examined if leg muscle strength correlates to functional balance and mobility among geriatric inpatients. Fifty inpatients, 29 women and 21 men (mean age 79.6 years) were included. Functional balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and mobility was assessed with the Physiotherapy Clinical Outcome Variable Scale (COVS). Strength in the leg extension muscles was measured as 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) in a leg press and strength in the ankle muscles was measured with Medical Research Council grades (MRC, 0-5). The sum scores, and most of the single items, of the BBS and the COVS significantly correlated to 1RM/body weight, ankle dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion. In a stepwise multiple regression, ankle dorsiflexion and 1RM/body weight together accounted for 39% of the variance of the BBS and 41% of the variance of the COVS. Estimated values of the BBS and the COVS can be calculated from the equation. In clinical work, the knowledge about how leg muscle strength associates with balance and mobility may be useful in analyzing underlying causes of reduced balance and mobility function, and in planning rehabilitation programs.
  • Hellner, Britt Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Systematiskt arbete för äldres säkerhet : om fall, trafikolyckor och bränder
  • 2007
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Äldre personer är överrepresenterade i nästan alla olyckor. Förutom stort personligt lidande för individen leder skadorna ofta till omfattande kostnader för samhället. Därför har Räddningsverket och IMS/Socialstyrelsen tilsammans med forskare vid Umeå Universitet, Karlstad Universitet, Krolinska Insitutet, FoU Välfärd Örebro samt Vägverket gemensamt sammaställt denna bok. Syftet är att inspirera och vägleda ett systematiskt arbete i samhället för att öka säkerheten och minska skadorna till följd av olyckor bland äldre. Boken riktar sig till verksamma inom vård och omsorg för äldre, tjänstemän och politiker på olika nivåer i samhället
  • Holmbom, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Motivationsekvationen : att vägleda äldre personer till fysisk aktivitet
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Fysioterapi. ; :5, s. 38-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Det finns ett tydligt samband mellan ökad ålder och minskande fysisk aktivitet, trots att aktiviteten ger hälsovinster för äldre personer på alla funktionsnivåer. Många äldre har kontakt med hälso- och sjukvården, vilket ger personalen en ypperlig möjlighet att påverka dem. För att vägleda äldre personer till fysisk aktivitet gäller det att finna faktorer som ökar motivationen och att identifiera barriärer. Motivationsekvationen, som presenteras här, är en modell som belyser sambandet mellan fyra faktorer: ”upplevd chans att lyckas” och ”upplevd betydelse av målet” i förhållande till ”upplevd kostnad” och ”benägenhet att bli stillasittande”. Samspelet mellan dem styr våra medvetna och omedvetna val när det gäller att påbörja och bibehålla olika beteenden. Faktorerna kan påverkas, direkt eller indirekt, och genom att öka de båda förstnämnda och minska de båda senare skapas hög motivation. Motivationsekvationen kan användas för att kartlägga patientens motivationsnivå. Tillsammans med det vägledande samtalet ger den möjlighet till individuellt skräddarsydda åtgärder.
  • Häggqvist, Beatrice, et al. (författare)
  • "The balancing act". Licensed practical nurse experiences of falls and fall prevention : a qualitative study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. - 1471-2318. ; 12, s. 62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients.Methods: A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, "the balancing act". The theme includes three categories: "the right to decide", "the constant watch", and "the ongoing negotiation" as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients' appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients' risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words "risk of falling" were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example "dizzy and pale". The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer.Conclusions: Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others, and take actions to prevent falls. The climate and the structure of the ward are essential if licensed practical nurses are to be encouraged to routinely consider risk of falling and implement risk reduction strategies.
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