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  • Holmbom, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Motivationsekvationen : att vägleda äldre personer till fysisk aktivitet
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Fysioterapi. ; :5, s. 38-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Det finns ett tydligt samband mellan ökad ålder och minskande fysisk aktivitet, trots att aktiviteten ger hälsovinster för äldre personer på alla funktionsnivåer. Många äldre har kontakt med hälso- och sjukvården, vilket ger personalen en ypperlig möjlighet att påverka dem. För att vägleda äldre personer till fysisk aktivitet gäller det att finna faktorer som ökar motivationen och att identifiera barriärer. Motivationsekvationen, som presenteras här, är en modell som belyser sambandet mellan fyra faktorer: ”upplevd chans att lyckas” och ”upplevd betydelse av målet” i förhållande till ”upplevd kostnad” och ”benägenhet att bli stillasittande”. Samspelet mellan dem styr våra medvetna och omedvetna val när det gäller att påbörja och bibehålla olika beteenden. Faktorerna kan påverkas, direkt eller indirekt, och genom att öka de båda förstnämnda och minska de båda senare skapas hög motivation. Motivationsekvationen kan användas för att kartlägga patientens motivationsnivå. Tillsammans med det vägledande samtalet ger den möjlighet till individuellt skräddarsydda åtgärder.
  • Häggqvist, Beatrice, et al. (författare)
  • "The balancing act". Licensed practical nurse experiences of falls and fall prevention : a qualitative study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. - 1471-2318 .- 1471-2318. ; 12, s. 62-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients.Methods: A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, "the balancing act". The theme includes three categories: "the right to decide", "the constant watch", and "the ongoing negotiation" as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients' appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients' risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words "risk of falling" were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example "dizzy and pale". The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer.Conclusions: Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others, and take actions to prevent falls. The climate and the structure of the ward are essential if licensed practical nurses are to be encouraged to routinely consider risk of falling and implement risk reduction strategies.
  • Hörnsten, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement error of the Mini-Mental State Examination among individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Ageing. - : Springer. - 1613-9372 .- 1613-9380.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few studies have investigated the measurement error of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the same unit of measurement, also known as absolute reliability. This measurement can help determine whether an observed score change for an individual is likely to represent true change. The aim of this study was to investigate the absolute reliability of the MMSE among individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes. Among 88 participants, 19 (21.6%) were men, 35 (39.8%) had Alzheimer's disease, 35 (39.8%) had vascular dementia, and the mean age was 84.0 years (range 65-98). The participants were tested and retested with the MMSE within 1-6 days. Both tests were administered by the same assessor at the same time of day. The mean MMSE score was 13.7 (range 0-28). The absolute difference between MMSE scores varied from 0 to 6 points, and the differences did not correlate with the corresponding score means (p = 0.874). The smallest detectable change (SDC) between two measurements was 4.00. The SDC was independent of depression, impaired vision and hearing, delirium within the last week, dementia type and age. However, the SDC was 5.56 among men and 3.50 among women (p = 0.003). In conclusion, for individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes, it seems like their MMSE score needs to change by four or more points between two measurements in order for their score change to be reliably higher than the measurement error.
  • Jensen, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a fall prevention program including exercise on mobility and falls in frail older people living in residential care facilities
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 16:4, s. 283-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Impaired mobility is one of the strongest predictors for falls in older people. We hypothesized that exercise as part of a fall prevention program would have positive effects, both short- and long-term, on gait, balance and strength in older people at high risk of falling and with varying levels of cognition, residing in residential care facilities. A secondary hypothesis was that these effects would be associated with a reduced risk of falling. METHODS: 187 out of all residents living in 9 facilities, > or =65 years of age were at high risk of falling. The facilities were cluster-randomized to fall intervention or usual care. The intervention program comprised: education, environment, individually designed exercise, drug review, post-fall assessments, aids, and hip protectors. Data were adjusted for baseline performance and clustering. RESULTS: At 11 weeks, positive intervention effects were found on independent ambulation (FAC, p=0.026), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and step height (> or =10 cm, p<0.001), but not significantly on the Berg Balance Scale. At 9 months (long-term outcome), 3 intervention and 15 control residents had lost the ability to walk (p=0.001). Independent ambulation and maximum gait speed were maintained in the intervention group but deteriorated in the control group (p=0.001). Residents with both higher and lower cognition benefited in most outcome measures. Noassociation was found between improved mobility and reduced risk of falling.CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, as part of a fall prevention program, appears to preserve the ability to walk, maintain gait speed, ambulate independently, and improve step height. Benefits were found in residents with both lower and higher cognitive impairment, but were not found to be associated with a reduced risk of falling
  • Jensen, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Fall and injury prevention in older people living in residential care facilities : A cluster randomized trial
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 136:10, s. 733-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Falls and resulting injuries are particularly common in older people living in residential care facilities, but knowledge about the prevention of falls is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a multifactorial intervention program would reduce falls and fall-related injuries. DESIGN: A cluster randomized, controlled, nonblinded trial. SETTING: 9 residential care facilities located in a northern Swedish city. PATIENTS: 439 residents 65 years of age or older. INTERVENTION: An 11-week multidisciplinary program that included both general and resident-specific, tailored strategies. The strategies comprised educating staff, modifying the environment, implementing exercise programs, supplying and repairing aids, reviewing drug regimens, providing free hip protectors, having post-fall problem-solving conferences, and guiding staff. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcomes were the number of residents sustaining a fall, the number of falls, and the time to occurrence of the first fall. A secondary outcome was the number of injuries resulting from falls. RESULTS: During the 34-week follow-up period, 82 residents (44%) in the intervention program sustained a fall compared with 109 residents (56%) in the control group (risk ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96]). The adjusted odds ratio was 0.49 (CI, 0.37 to 0.65), and the adjusted incidence rate ratio of falls was 0.60 (CI, 0.50 to 0.73). Each of 3 residents in the intervention group and 12 in the control group had 1 femoral fracture (adjusted odds ratio, 0.23 [CI, 0.06 to 0.94]). Clustering was considered in all regression models. CONCLUSION: An interdisciplinary and multifactorial prevention program targeting residents, staff, and the environment may reduce falls and femoral fractures.
  • Jensen, Jane (författare)
  • Fall and injury prevention in residential care : effects in residents with higher and lower levels of cognition
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 51:5, s. 627-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial fall and injury prevention program in older people with higher and lower levels of cognition. DESIGN: A preplanned subgroup comparison of the effectiveness of a cluster-randomized, nonblinded, usual-care, controlled trial.SETTING: Nine residential facilities in Umea, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All consenting residents living in the facilities, aged 65 and older, who could be assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; n = 378).An MMSE score of 19 was used to divide the sample into one group with lower and one with higher level of cognition. The lower MMSE group was older (mean +/- standard deviation = 83.9 +/- 5.8 vs 82.2 +/- 7.5) and more functionally impaired (Barthel Index, median (interquartile range) 11 (6-15) vs 17 (13-18)) and had a higher risk of falling (64% vs 36%) than the higher MMSE group. INTERVENTION: A multifactorial fall prevention program comprising staff education, environmental adjustment, exercise, drug review, aids, hip protectors, and postfall problem-solving conferences. MEASUREMENTS: The number of falls, time to first fall, and number of injuries were evaluated and compared by study group (intervention vs control) and by MMSE group. RESULTS: A significant intervention effect on falls appeared in the higher MMSE group but not in the lower MMSE group (adjusted incidence rates ratio of falls P =.016 and P =.121 and adjusted hazard ratio P <.001 and P =.420, respectively). In the lower MMSE group, 10 femoral fractures were found, all of which occurred in the control group (P =.006). CONCLUSION: The higher MMSE group experienced fewer falls after this multifactorial intervention program, whereas the lower MMSE group did not respond as well to the intervention, but femoral fractures were reduced in the lower MMSE group
  • Jensen, Jane (författare)
  • Falls among frail older people in residential care
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 30:1, s. 54-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate the incidence, circumstances, and injuries from falls among frail older people living in three different types of Swedish residential care settings. METHODS: The settings were senior citizens' apartments, an old people's home, and a group dwelling for people with dementia. The falls were registered during the three-year study period on a semi-structured fall report, and injurious falls were categorized according to severity. RESULTS: In total 428 falls occurred among 121 residents. The incidence rate of falls at the group dwelling was twice the rates of the old people's home and senior citizens' apartments (4282 compared with 1709 and 2114 falls per 1000 person-years respectively). Some 27% of the falls occurred during the night (2100h to 0600h) and 28% were related to a visit to the lavatory. The presence of acute disease at the time of a fall was diagnosed in 23% of the falls. Some type of injury occurred in 118 falls (28%) and 36 of these (8%) led to moderate or serious injuries. In total 48 fractures were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In a preventive programme for falls and injuries in residential care settings, areas of particular interest should include falls after mealtimes and falls at night, conditions of acute diseases, rising up from sitting, walking, and activities in progress, especially visits to the lavatory.
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