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  • Jensen, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a fall prevention program including exercise on mobility and falls in frail older people living in residential care facilities
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 16:4, s. 283-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Impaired mobility is one of the strongest predictors for falls in older people. We hypothesized that exercise as part of a fall prevention program would have positive effects, both short- and long-term, on gait, balance and strength in older people at high risk of falling and with varying levels of cognition, residing in residential care facilities. A secondary hypothesis was that these effects would be associated with a reduced risk of falling. METHODS: 187 out of all residents living in 9 facilities, > or =65 years of age were at high risk of falling. The facilities were cluster-randomized to fall intervention or usual care. The intervention program comprised: education, environment, individually designed exercise, drug review, post-fall assessments, aids, and hip protectors. Data were adjusted for baseline performance and clustering. RESULTS: At 11 weeks, positive intervention effects were found on independent ambulation (FAC, p=0.026), maximum gait speed (p=0.002), and step height (> or =10 cm, p<0.001), but not significantly on the Berg Balance Scale. At 9 months (long-term outcome), 3 intervention and 15 control residents had lost the ability to walk (p=0.001). Independent ambulation and maximum gait speed were maintained in the intervention group but deteriorated in the control group (p=0.001). Residents with both higher and lower cognition benefited in most outcome measures. Noassociation was found between improved mobility and reduced risk of falling.CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, as part of a fall prevention program, appears to preserve the ability to walk, maintain gait speed, ambulate independently, and improve step height. Benefits were found in residents with both lower and higher cognitive impairment, but were not found to be associated with a reduced risk of falling
  • Jensen, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Fall and injury prevention in older people living in residential care facilities : A cluster randomized trial
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - 0003-4819. ; 136:10, s. 733-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Falls and resulting injuries are particularly common in older people living in residential care facilities, but knowledge about the prevention of falls is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a multifactorial intervention program would reduce falls and fall-related injuries. DESIGN: A cluster randomized, controlled, nonblinded trial. SETTING: 9 residential care facilities located in a northern Swedish city. PATIENTS: 439 residents 65 years of age or older. INTERVENTION: An 11-week multidisciplinary program that included both general and resident-specific, tailored strategies. The strategies comprised educating staff, modifying the environment, implementing exercise programs, supplying and repairing aids, reviewing drug regimens, providing free hip protectors, having post-fall problem-solving conferences, and guiding staff. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcomes were the number of residents sustaining a fall, the number of falls, and the time to occurrence of the first fall. A secondary outcome was the number of injuries resulting from falls. RESULTS: During the 34-week follow-up period, 82 residents (44%) in the intervention program sustained a fall compared with 109 residents (56%) in the control group (risk ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96]). The adjusted odds ratio was 0.49 (CI, 0.37 to 0.65), and the adjusted incidence rate ratio of falls was 0.60 (CI, 0.50 to 0.73). Each of 3 residents in the intervention group and 12 in the control group had 1 femoral fracture (adjusted odds ratio, 0.23 [CI, 0.06 to 0.94]). Clustering was considered in all regression models. CONCLUSION: An interdisciplinary and multifactorial prevention program targeting residents, staff, and the environment may reduce falls and femoral fractures.
  • Jensen, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Fall and injury prevention in residential care : effects in residents with higher and lower levels of cognition
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614. ; 51:5, s. 627-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial fall and injury prevention program in older people with higher and lower levels of cognition. DESIGN: A preplanned subgroup comparison of the effectiveness of a cluster-randomized, nonblinded, usual-care, controlled trial.SETTING: Nine residential facilities in Umea, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All consenting residents living in the facilities, aged 65 and older, who could be assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; n = 378).An MMSE score of 19 was used to divide the sample into one group with lower and one with higher level of cognition. The lower MMSE group was older (mean +/- standard deviation = 83.9 +/- 5.8 vs 82.2 +/- 7.5) and more functionally impaired (Barthel Index, median (interquartile range) 11 (6-15) vs 17 (13-18)) and had a higher risk of falling (64% vs 36%) than the higher MMSE group. INTERVENTION: A multifactorial fall prevention program comprising staff education, environmental adjustment, exercise, drug review, aids, hip protectors, and postfall problem-solving conferences. MEASUREMENTS: The number of falls, time to first fall, and number of injuries were evaluated and compared by study group (intervention vs control) and by MMSE group. RESULTS: A significant intervention effect on falls appeared in the higher MMSE group but not in the lower MMSE group (adjusted incidence rates ratio of falls P =.016 and P =.121 and adjusted hazard ratio P <.001 and P =.420, respectively). In the lower MMSE group, 10 femoral fractures were found, all of which occurred in the control group (P =.006). CONCLUSION: The higher MMSE group experienced fewer falls after this multifactorial intervention program, whereas the lower MMSE group did not respond as well to the intervention, but femoral fractures were reduced in the lower MMSE group
  • Jensen, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Falls among frail older people in residential care
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 30:1, s. 54-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: A prospective study was carried out to investigate the incidence, circumstances, and injuries from falls among frail older people living in three different types of Swedish residential care settings. METHODS: The settings were senior citizens' apartments, an old people's home, and a group dwelling for people with dementia. The falls were registered during the three-year study period on a semi-structured fall report, and injurious falls were categorized according to severity. RESULTS: In total 428 falls occurred among 121 residents. The incidence rate of falls at the group dwelling was twice the rates of the old people's home and senior citizens' apartments (4282 compared with 1709 and 2114 falls per 1000 person-years respectively). Some 27% of the falls occurred during the night (2100h to 0600h) and 28% were related to a visit to the lavatory. The presence of acute disease at the time of a fall was diagnosed in 23% of the falls. Some type of injury occurred in 118 falls (28%) and 36 of these (8%) led to moderate or serious injuries. In total 48 fractures were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In a preventive programme for falls and injuries in residential care settings, areas of particular interest should include falls after mealtimes and falls at night, conditions of acute diseases, rising up from sitting, walking, and activities in progress, especially visits to the lavatory.
  • Johansson, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive function and walking velocity in people with dementia : a comparison of backward and forward walking
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Gait & Posture. - Elsevier. - 0966-6362. ; 58, s. 481-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How forward and backward walking, both central to everyday life, relate to cognition are relatively unexplored in people with dementia. This study aimed to investigate if forward and backward walking velocity respectively, associated with global cognition and executive function in people with dementia, and whether the association differed according to walking aid use or dementia type. Using a cross-sectional design, 161 participants (77% women), a mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, and mean age of 85.5 years and living in nursing homes were included. Self-paced forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) velocity over 2.4 m was measured. Global cognitive outcome measurements included MMSE and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Executive function was measured using Verbal Fluency (VF). In comprehensively adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, FW was independently associated with VF (p = 0.001), but not MMSE (p = 0.126) or ADAS-Cog (p = 0.818). BW was independently associated with VF (p = 0.043) and MMSE (p = 0.022), but not ADAS-Cog (p = 0.519). Interaction analyses showed that the association between BW velocity and executive function were stronger in participants who walked without a walking aid. No associations differed according to dementia type. In conclusion, executive function appears important to walking velocity, both forward and backward, in people with dementia with mild to moderately severe cognitive impairment. Global cognitive function was associated with backward walking only, perhaps due to it being more challenging. The association between BW velocity and executive function differed according to use of walking aids, which appeared to attenuate the association.
  • Kallin, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Predisposing and precipitating factors for falls among older people in residential care
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Public Health. - 0033-3506. ; 116:5, s. 263-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Falls and their consequences are serious health problems among older populations. To study predisposing and precipitating factors for falls among older people in residential care we used a cross-sectional study design with a prospective follow up for falls. Fifty-eight women and 25 men, with a mean age of 79.6 y, were included and prospectively followed up regarding falls for a period of 1 y after baseline assessments. All those who fell were assessed regarding factors that might have precipitated the fall. The incidence rate was 2.29 falls/person years. Antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs), impaired vision and being unable to use stairs without assistance were independently associated with being a 'faller'. Twenty-eight (53.8%) of the fallers suffered injuries as a result of their falls, including 21 fractures. Twenty-seven percent of the falls were judged to be precipitated by an acute illness or disease and 8.6% by a side effect of a drug. Acute symptoms of diseases or drug side effects were associated with 58% of the falls which resulted in fractures. We conclude that SSRIs seem to constitute one important factor that predisposes older people to fall, once or repeatedly. Since acute illnesses and drug side-effects were important precipitating factors, falls should be regarded as a possible symptom of disease or a side-effect of a drug until it is proven otherwise.
  • Lindberg, Jonatan, et al. (författare)
  • En spark i baken för ett aktivare liv
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Efter årtionden av inaktivitet fick några patienter i 60-årsåldern fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR). Vår studie pekar på att det var ett bra sätt att hjälpa dem att finna motivation och att ta ett första steg mot ett aktivare liv.
  • Lindelöf, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of older people with dementia participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program in nursing homes "While it's tough, it's useful"
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of the study was to describe the views and experiences of participation in a high-intensity functional exercise (HIFE) program among older people with dementia in nursing homes. The study design was a qualitative interview study with 21 participants (15 women), aged 74-96, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10-23 at study start. The HIFE-program comprises exercises performed in functional weight-bearing positions and including movements used in everyday tasks. The exercise was individually designed, supervised in small groups in the nursing homes and performed during four months. Interviews were performed directly after exercise sessions and field notes about the sessions were recorded. Qualitative content analysis was used for analyses. The analysis revealed four themes: Exercise is challenging but achievable; Exercise gives pleasure and strength; Exercise evokes body memories; and Togetherness gives comfort, joy, and encouragement. The intense and tailored exercise, adapted to each participant, was perceived as challenging but achievable, and gave pleasure and improvements in mental and bodily strength. Memories of previous physical activities aroused and participants rediscovered bodily capabilities. Importance of individualized and supervised exercise in small groups was emphasized and created feelings of encouragement, safety, and coherence. The findings from the interviews reinforces the positive meaning of intense exercise to older people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. The participants were able to safely adhere to and understand the necessity of the exercise. Providers of exercise should consider the aspects valued by participants, e.g. supervision, individualization, small groups, encouragement, and that exercise involved joy and rediscovery of body competencies.
  • Lindemann, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Maximum step length as a potential screening tool for falls in non-disabled older adults living in the community.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - 1594-0667. ; 20:5, s. 394-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Identification of the risk of falls in a cohort of interest is a prerequisite for a targeted fall prevention study. Motor tasks are widely used as baseline assessment in such studies, but there are only a few well-evaluated tests of motor performance to predict falls prospectively. This study was conducted to find out if the potential of the maximum step length (MSL) test can predict future falls in non-disabled older persons. METHODS: A modified version of the MSL test was used for baseline assessment in 56 community-dwelling, non-disabled elderly persons (mean age 67.7 yrs, SD 6 yrs; 57% women). During a follow-up of 1 year, falls were recorded in a daily calendar. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 30 persons (54%) fell, with no gender difference in reporting of falls between men and women. The adjusted mean valid step length and adjusted maximum valid step length were predictive of future falls with a sensitivity/specificity of 77%/62% and 70%/69%, respectively. Combining MSL test results with fall history increased sensitivity to 93% and 90%, respectively, but decreased specificity to 54% and 58%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MSL test is a feasible tool, with low requirements in space, predicting future falls in community-dwelling older persons. In combination with history of falls, the sensitivity of the test increased considerably.
  • Lindgren, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • End users transforming experiences into formal information and process models for personalised health interventions
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. - 0926-9630. ; 205, s. 378-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Five physiotherapists organised a user-centric design process of a knowledge-based support system for promoting exercise and preventing falls. The process integrated focus group studies with 17 older adults and prototyping. The transformation of informal medical and rehabilitation expertise and older adults' experiences into formal information and process models during the development was studied. As tool they used ACKTUS, a development platform for knowledge-based applications. The process became agile and incremental, partly due to the diversity of expectations and preferences among both older adults and physiotherapists, and the participatory approach to design and development. In addition, there was a need to develop the knowledge content alongside with the formal models and their presentations, which allowed the participants to test hands-on and evaluate the ideas, content and design. The resulting application is modular, extendable, flexible and adaptable to the individual end user. Moreover, the physiotherapists are able to modify the information and process models, and in this way further develop the application. The main constraint was found to be the lack of support for the initial phase of concept modelling, which lead to a redesigned user interface and functionality of ACKTUS.
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