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41.
  • Johansson, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive function and walking velocity in people with dementia : a comparison of backward and forward walking
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Gait & Posture. - : Elsevier. - 0966-6362 .- 1879-2219. ; 58, s. 481-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How forward and backward walking, both central to everyday life, relate to cognition are relatively unexplored in people with dementia. This study aimed to investigate if forward and backward walking velocity respectively, associated with global cognition and executive function in people with dementia, and whether the association differed according to walking aid use or dementia type. Using a cross-sectional design, 161 participants (77% women), a mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, and mean age of 85.5 years and living in nursing homes were included. Self-paced forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) velocity over 2.4 m was measured. Global cognitive outcome measurements included MMSE and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Executive function was measured using Verbal Fluency (VF). In comprehensively adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, FW was independently associated with VF (p = 0.001), but not MMSE (p = 0.126) or ADAS-Cog (p = 0.818). BW was independently associated with VF (p = 0.043) and MMSE (p = 0.022), but not ADAS-Cog (p = 0.519). Interaction analyses showed that the association between BW velocity and executive function were stronger in participants who walked without a walking aid. No associations differed according to dementia type. In conclusion, executive function appears important to walking velocity, both forward and backward, in people with dementia with mild to moderately severe cognitive impairment. Global cognitive function was associated with backward walking only, perhaps due to it being more challenging. The association between BW velocity and executive function differed according to use of walking aids, which appeared to attenuate the association.
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42.
  • Kallin, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Predisposing and precipitating factors for falls among older people in residential care
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Public Health. - 0033-3506 .- 1476-5616. ; 116:5, s. 263-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Falls and their consequences are serious health problems among older populations. To study predisposing and precipitating factors for falls among older people in residential care we used a cross-sectional study design with a prospective follow up for falls. Fifty-eight women and 25 men, with a mean age of 79.6 y, were included and prospectively followed up regarding falls for a period of 1 y after baseline assessments. All those who fell were assessed regarding factors that might have precipitated the fall. The incidence rate was 2.29 falls/person years. Antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs), impaired vision and being unable to use stairs without assistance were independently associated with being a 'faller'. Twenty-eight (53.8%) of the fallers suffered injuries as a result of their falls, including 21 fractures. Twenty-seven percent of the falls were judged to be precipitated by an acute illness or disease and 8.6% by a side effect of a drug. Acute symptoms of diseases or drug side effects were associated with 58% of the falls which resulted in fractures. We conclude that SSRIs seem to constitute one important factor that predisposes older people to fall, once or repeatedly. Since acute illnesses and drug side-effects were important precipitating factors, falls should be regarded as a possible symptom of disease or a side-effect of a drug until it is proven otherwise.
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43.
  • Lindberg, Jonatan, et al. (författare)
  • En spark i baken för ett aktivare liv
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Efter årtionden av inaktivitet fick några patienter i 60-årsåldern fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR). Vår studie pekar på att det var ett bra sätt att hjälpa dem att finna motivation och att ta ett första steg mot ett aktivare liv.
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44.
  • Lindelöf, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of older people with dementia participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program in nursing homes : "While it's tough, it's useful"
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of the study was to describe the views and experiences of participation in a high-intensity functional exercise (HIFE) program among older people with dementia in nursing homes. The study design was a qualitative interview study with 21 participants (15 women), aged 74-96, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10-23 at study start. The HIFE-program comprises exercises performed in functional weight-bearing positions and including movements used in everyday tasks. The exercise was individually designed, supervised in small groups in the nursing homes and performed during four months. Interviews were performed directly after exercise sessions and field notes about the sessions were recorded. Qualitative content analysis was used for analyses. The analysis revealed four themes: Exercise is challenging but achievable; Exercise gives pleasure and strength; Exercise evokes body memories; and Togetherness gives comfort, joy, and encouragement. The intense and tailored exercise, adapted to each participant, was perceived as challenging but achievable, and gave pleasure and improvements in mental and bodily strength. Memories of previous physical activities aroused and participants rediscovered bodily capabilities. Importance of individualized and supervised exercise in small groups was emphasized and created feelings of encouragement, safety, and coherence. The findings from the interviews reinforces the positive meaning of intense exercise to older people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. The participants were able to safely adhere to and understand the necessity of the exercise. Providers of exercise should consider the aspects valued by participants, e.g. supervision, individualization, small groups, encouragement, and that exercise involved joy and rediscovery of body competencies.
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45.
  • Lindemann, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Maximum step length as a potential screening tool for falls in non-disabled older adults living in the community.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 20:5, s. 394-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Identification of the risk of falls in a cohort of interest is a prerequisite for a targeted fall prevention study. Motor tasks are widely used as baseline assessment in such studies, but there are only a few well-evaluated tests of motor performance to predict falls prospectively. This study was conducted to find out if the potential of the maximum step length (MSL) test can predict future falls in non-disabled older persons. METHODS: A modified version of the MSL test was used for baseline assessment in 56 community-dwelling, non-disabled elderly persons (mean age 67.7 yrs, SD 6 yrs; 57% women). During a follow-up of 1 year, falls were recorded in a daily calendar. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 30 persons (54%) fell, with no gender difference in reporting of falls between men and women. The adjusted mean valid step length and adjusted maximum valid step length were predictive of future falls with a sensitivity/specificity of 77%/62% and 70%/69%, respectively. Combining MSL test results with fall history increased sensitivity to 93% and 90%, respectively, but decreased specificity to 54% and 58%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MSL test is a feasible tool, with low requirements in space, predicting future falls in community-dwelling older persons. In combination with history of falls, the sensitivity of the test increased considerably.
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46.
  • Lindgren, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • End users transforming experiences into formal information and process models for personalised health interventions
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. - 0926-9630 .- 1879-8365. ; 205, s. 378-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Five physiotherapists organised a user-centric design process of a knowledge-based support system for promoting exercise and preventing falls. The process integrated focus group studies with 17 older adults and prototyping. The transformation of informal medical and rehabilitation expertise and older adults' experiences into formal information and process models during the development was studied. As tool they used ACKTUS, a development platform for knowledge-based applications. The process became agile and incremental, partly due to the diversity of expectations and preferences among both older adults and physiotherapists, and the participatory approach to design and development. In addition, there was a need to develop the knowledge content alongside with the formal models and their presentations, which allowed the participants to test hands-on and evaluate the ideas, content and design. The resulting application is modular, extendable, flexible and adaptable to the individual end user. Moreover, the physiotherapists are able to modify the information and process models, and in this way further develop the application. The main constraint was found to be the lack of support for the initial phase of concept modelling, which lead to a redesigned user interface and functionality of ACKTUS.
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47.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program for older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities : evaluation of the applicability with focus on cognitive function
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Therapy. - 0031-9023 .- 1538-6724. ; 86:4, s. 489-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge concerning the applicability and the effect of high-intensity exercise programs is very limited for older people with severe cognitive and physical impairments. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities. A second aim was to analyze whether cognitive function was associated with the applicability of the program. SUBJECTS: The subjects were 91 older people (mean age=85.3 years, SD=6.1, range=68-100) who were dependent in personal activities of daily living and randomly assigned to participate in an exercise intervention. Their mean score for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was 17.5 (SD=5.0, range=10-29). METHODS: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program was performed in groups of 3 to 7 participants who were supervised by physical therapists. There were 29 exercise sessions over 13 weeks. Attendance, intensity of lower-limb strength and balance exercises, and occurrence and seriousness of adverse events were the outcome variables in evaluating the applicability of the program. RESULTS: The median attendance rate was 76%. Lower-limb strength exercises with high intensity were performed in a median of 53% of the attended exercise sessions, and balance exercises with high intensity were performed in a median of 73% of the attended exercise sessions. The median rate of sessions with adverse events was 5%. All except 2 adverse events were assessed as minor and temporary, and none led to manifest injury or disease. No significant differences were observed in applicability when comparing participants with dementia and participants without dementia. In addition, there was no significant correlation between applicability and the MMSE score. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program is applicable for use, regardless of cognitive function, among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and have an MMSE score of 10 or higher.
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48.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on functional balance : preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - : Wiley. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 59:7, s. 1274-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, or level of functional balance capacity influences the effect of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program on functional balance. DESIGN: Preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nine residential care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-one people aged 65 to 100 dependent in activities of daily living and with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of 10 or greater. INTERVENTION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity, each comprising 29 sessions over 3 months. MEASUREMENTS: Functional balance capacity was assessed blindly using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The BBS consists of 14 tasks, common in everyday life, such as standing up from sitting and, while standing, reaching forward or turning 360°. Interactions between allocation to activity group and each subgroup were evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: The subgroup analyses revealed no statistically significant interaction for age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, or level of functional balance capacity at 3 (P=.65, .65, .51, .78, .09, .67, respectively) or 6 (P=.69, .62, .20, .94, .48, .85, respectively) months. In addition, at 3 and 6 months there was no significant interaction for cognitive level (P=.28, .47, respectively) or number of depressive symptoms (P=.85, .49, respectively). CONCLUSION: Older age, female sex, depression, mild to moderate dementia syndrome, malnutrition, and severe physical impairment do not seem to have a negative effect on functional balance from a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program. Consequently, people with these characteristics in residential care facilities should not be excluded from offers of rehabilitation including high-intensity exercises.
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49.
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50.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on activities of daily living : a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 57:10, s. 1741-1749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program reduces dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) in older people living in residential care facilities, focusing on people with dementia. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Nine residential care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-one older people dependent in ADLs and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater. One hundred (52.4%) of the participants had dementia. INTERVENTION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity consisting of 29 sessions over 3 months. MEASUREMENTS: The Barthel ADL Index; follow-up at 3 months (directly after the intervention) and 6 months with intention-to-treat analyses. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding overall ADL performance. Analyses for each item revealed that a smaller proportion of participants in the exercise group had deteriorated in indoor mobility at 3 months (exercise 3.5% vs control 16.0%, P=.01) and 6 months (7.7% vs 19.8%, P=.03). For people with dementia, there was a significant difference in overall ADL performance in favor of the exercise group at 3 months (mean difference 1.1, P=.03) but not at 6 months. CONCLUSION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program seems to reduce ADL decline related to indoor mobility for older people living in residential care facilities. The program does not appear to have an overall effect on ADLs. In people with dementia, the exercise program may prevent decline in overall ADL performance, but continuous training may be needed to maintain that effect.
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