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  • DAWODY, JAZAER, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • An integrated system for energy-efficient exhaust aftertreatment for heavy-duty vehicles
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind. - 9783319177779 ; s. 133-143
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. This chapter presents a unique system approach applied in a joint academic- industrial research programme, E4 Mistra, to attain the goals of high energy efficiency and low emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system for heavy-duty vehicles. The high energy efficiency is achieved by heat recuperation, onboard hydrogen production for NOx reduction, and by finding new solutions for making the aftertreatment system active at low exhaust temperatures. To reach low particulate emissions, a mechanical filter using a sintered metal powder is developed and coated with catalytic material to improve the soot oxidation efficiency. Low NOx emissions are achieved by an efficient NOx reduction catalyst. The integrated E4 Mistra system comprises four technological advances: thermoelectric (TE) materials for heat recuperation, catalytic reduction of NOx over innovative catalyst substrates using either the onboard diesel or biodiesel, H2 from a high-efficiency fuel reformer, and particulate filtration over a porous metal filter. The TE materials are used in a TE generator (TEG) which converts thermal energy into electricity. The TEG is used to recuperate heat from the exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) circuit of heavy-duty trucks and is expected to generate ~1 kW electric power from 20 kW heat in the exhaust gas. The TEG is integrated in a plate heat exchanger (HEX) designed particularly for this application. Apart from the knowledge and experiences in TEG and heat exchange technologies, a thorough fluid dynamics and TE analysis are performed in this project to understand the governing processes and optimize the system accordingly. The components of the E4 Mistra system are explained in the chapter in addition to test results, which show the system's capacity for H2 production, NOx conversion, particulate matter filtration and soot oxidation, and finally electric power generation via heat recuperation from the exhaust gas using the developed TEG-HEX system.
  • Edin, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Macrophages : Good guys in colorectal cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Oncoimmunology. - 2162-4011. ; 2:2, s. e23038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macrophages play a complex role in tumor progression since they can exert both tumor-preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor-promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. In colorectal carcinoma (CRC), at odds to many other cancers, macrophage infiltration has been correlated with an improved patient survival. In a recent study, we have evaluated the distribution of M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes in CRC and their impact on patient prognosis.
  • Edin, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic skewing of macrophages in vitro by secreted factors from colorectal cancer cells
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PLoS, Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:9, s. e74982
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macrophages are cells with many important functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses and have been shown to play a complex role in tumor progression since they harbour both tumor preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. In many human cancers, infiltrating macrophages have been associated with a poor patient prognosis, and therefore suggested to be mainly of an M2 phenotype. However, we and others have previously shown that increased macrophage density in colorectal cancer (CRC) instead is correlated with an improved prognosis. It is an intriguing question if the different roles played by macrophages in various cancers could be explained by variations in the balance between M1 and M2 macrophage attributes, driven by tumor- or organ-specific factors in the tumor microenvironment of individual cancers. Here, we utilized an in vitro cell culture system of macrophage differentiation to compare differences and similarities in the phenotype (morphology, antigen-presentation, migration, endocytosis, and expression of cytokine and chemokine genes) between M1/M2 and tumor activated macrophages (TAMs), that could explain the positive role of macrophages in CRC. We found that secreted factors from CRC cells induced TAMs of a "mixed" M1/M2 phenotype, which in turn could contribute to a "good inflammatory response". This suggests that re-education of macrophages might allow for important therapeutic advances in the treatment of human cancer.
  • Edin, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • The Distribution of Macrophages with a M1 or M2 Phenotype in Relation to Prognosis and the Molecular Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PLoS One. - 1932-6203. ; 7:10, s. e47045
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High macrophage infiltration has been correlated to improved survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play complex roles in tumorigenesis since they are believed to hold both tumor preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. Here we have applied an immunohistochemical approach to determine the degree of infiltrating macrophages with a M1 or M2 phenotype in clinical specimens of CRC in relation to prognosis, both in CRC in general but also in subgroups of CRC defined by microsatellite instability (MSI) screening status and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). A total of 485 consecutive CRC specimens were stained for nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) (also denoted iNOS) as a marker for the M1 macrophage phenotype and the scavenger receptor CD163 as a marker for the M2 macrophage phenotype. The average infiltration of NOS2 and CD163 expressing macrophages along the invasive tumor front was semi-quantitatively evaluated using a four-graded scale. Two subtypes of macrophages, displaying M1 (NOS2(+)) or M2 (CD163(+)) phenotypes, were recognized. We observed a significant correlation between the amount of NOS2(+) and CD163(+) cells (P<0.0001). A strong inverse correlation to tumor stage was found for both NOS2 (P<0.0001) and CD163 (P<0.0001) infiltration. Furthermore, patients harbouring tumors highly infiltrated by NOS2+ cells had a significantly better prognosis than those infiltrated by few NOS2+ cells, and this was found to be independent of MSI screening status and CIMP status. No significant difference was found on cancer-specific survival in groups of CRC with different NOS2/CD163 ratios. In conclusion, an increased infiltration of macrophages with a M1 phenotype at the tumor front is accompanied by a concomitant increase in macrophages with a M2 phenotype, and in a stage dependent manner correlated to a better prognosis in patients with CRC.
  • Ekblom, Kim, et al. (författare)
  • Iron Biomarkers in Plasma, HFE Genotypes, and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer in a Prospective Setting
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. - 0012-3706. ; 55:3, s. 337-344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: High iron levels can increase the formation of noxious oxygen radicals, which are thought to promote carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether iron biomarkers and HFE genotypes, which influence iron regulation, constitute risk factors for colorectal cancer. DESIGN: This is a prospective nested case-referent study. SETTINGS: The study was performed within the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. PATIENTS: The study included 226 cases of colorectal cancer and 437 matched referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Conditional regression analysis was performed. Adjustments for smoking, smoking and BMI, and HFE C282Y and H63D were performed. RESULTS: The highest quintile of total iron-binding capacity showed significantly higher risk for colorectal cancer, unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.38-4.02). When stratified by sex, the findings were only present in women (OR 3.34 (95% CI 1.59-7.02)). Ferritin was associated with reduced risk throughout quintiles 2 to 5 both in univariate and multivariate models. LIMITATIONS: Colorectal cancer may influence iron markers because of occult bleeding. Homozygotes for HFE C282Y were too few to make conclusions for this group. The relatively short follow-up time might be insufficient to detect risk of iron biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: High iron levels do not increase the risk of colorectal cancer. HFE genotypes influencing iron uptake had no effect on colorectal cancer risk.
  • Eklöf, Vincy, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer-associated fecal microbial markers in colorectal cancer detection
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 141:12, s. 2528-2536
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in the western world. An effective screening program leading to early detection of disease would severely reduce the mortality of CRC. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been linked to CRC, but the potential of microbial markers for use in CRC screening has been largely unstudied. We used a nested case-control study of 238 study subjects to explore the use of microbial markers for clbA+ bacteria harboring the pks pathogenicity island, afa-C+ diffusely adherent Escherichia coli harboring the afa-1 operon, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in stool as potential screening markers for CRC. We found that individual markers for clbA+ bacteria and F. nucleatum were more abundant in stool of patients with CRC, and could predict cancer with a relatively high specificity (81.5% and 76.9%, respectively) and with a sensitivity of 56.4% and 69.2%, respectively. In a combined test of clbA+ bacteria and F. nucleatum, CRC was detected with a specificity of 63.1% and a sensitivity of 84.6%. Our findings support a potential value of microbial factors in stool as putative noninvasive biomarkers for CRC detection. We propose that microbial markers may represent an important future screening strategy for CRC, selecting patients with a "high-risk" microbial pattern to other further diagnostic procedures such as colonoscopy.
  • Eklöf, Vincy, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • The prognostic role of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN in colorectal cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920. ; 108:10, s. 2153-2163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN expression have been in focus to predict the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor-blocking therapy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, information on these four aberrations was collected and combined to a Quadruple index and used to evaluate the prognostic role of these factors in CRC. Patients We analysed the mutation status in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA and PTEN expression in two separate CRC cohorts, Northern Sweden Health Disease Study (NSHDS; n = 197) and Colorectal Cancer in Umea Study (CRUMS; n = 414). A Quadruple index was created, where Quadruple index positivity specifies cases with any aberration in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA or PTEN expression. Results Quadruple index positive tumours had a worse prognosis, significant in the NSHDS but not in the CRUMS cohort (NSHDS; P = 0.003 and CRUMS; P = 0.230) in univariate analyses but significance was lost in multivariate analyses. When analysing each gene separately, only BRAF was of prognostic significance in the NSHDS cohort (multivariate HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.16-3.43) and KRAS was of prognostic significance in the CRUMS cohort (multivariate HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.02-2.16). Aberrations in PIK3CA and PTEN did not add significant prognostic information. Conclusions Our results suggest that establishment of molecular subgroups based on KRAS and BRAF mutation status is important and should be considered in future prognostic studies in CRC.
  • Eklöf, Vincy, et al. (författare)
  • The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) 80G>A and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) 1561C>T polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer : a nested case-referent study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. - 0036-5513. ; 68:5, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate uptake and metabolism may affect folate status and, thereby, the risk of cancer. In this nested case‐referent study, we related two such polymorphisms, reduced folate carrier (RFC1) 80G>A and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) 1561C>T, to the risk of colorectal cancer, taking into account pre‐diagnostic plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations and the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism, which were analysed in a previous study. Material and methods. Subjects were 220 cases and 414 matched referents from the population‐based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Results. The RFC1 80A‐allele was associated with reduced plasma folate and elevated plasma total homocysteine concentrations, but the result was statistically significant only for folate. In contrast, the FOLH1 1561T‐allele was associated with higher plasma folate and reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations, and the result was statistically significant only for homocysteine. Neither polymorphism was related to the risk of colorectal cancer, either in univariate analysis or after adjusting for body mass index, current smoking, recreational and occupational physical activity and alcohol intake. Further adjustment for folate or homocysteine status or the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism did not affect risk estimates. Subjects with the RFC1 80AA genotype in combination with low plasma folate concentrations or the MTHFR 677TT genotype had a reduced risk of colorectal cancer of borderline statistical significance. Conclusions. These findings suggest that although the RFC1 80G>A and FOLH1 1561C>T polymorphisms may influence folate status, they are not likely to have a major independent role in the development of colorectal cancer. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365510701805431
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