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Sökning: WFRF:(Palmqvist Richard) > (2005-2009)

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  • Van Guelpen, B, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma folate and total homocysteine levels are associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, independently of each other and of renal function.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 266:2, s. 182-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between plasma folate, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine concentrations, dietary intake of folate and vitamins B12, B6 and B2, and the risk of first acute myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: Nested case-referent study with up to 13 years of follow-up. SETTING: The population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, with 73 879 participants at the time of case ascertainment. SUBJECTS: A total of 571 MI cases (406 men) and 1569 matched referents. Of the cases, 530 had plasma samples available, and 247 had dietary B-vitamin intake data. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of folate were inversely associated, and total homocysteine positively associated, with the risk of MI, independently of each other and of a number of established and novel cardiovascular risk factors, including renal function [multivariate odds ratio for highest vs. lowest quintile of folate 0.52 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), P for trend = 0.036, and homocysteine 1.92 (95% CI 1.20-3.09), P for trend = 0.006]. For plasma vitamin B12 concentrations, and vitamin B12, B6 and B2 intake, no clear risk relationship was apparent. Though not statistically significant, the results for folate intake were consistent with those for plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study of a population without mandatory folic acid fortification, both folate and homocysteine were strongly associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, independently of each other and of renal function. Although randomized trials of folic acid supplementation are needed to determine causality, our findings highlight the potential importance of folate, or sources of folate, in incident cardiovascular disease.
  • Cederquist, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Two Swedish founder MSH6 mutations, one nonsense and one missense, conferring high cumulative risk of Lynch syndrome.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical Genetics. - 0009-9163 .- 1399-0004. ; 68:6, s. 533-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lynch syndrome, or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is a cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch-repair genes, predominantly MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. A majority of the mutations reported are truncating, but for MSH6, missense mutations constitute over one third. Few have been proven pathogenic in functional studies or shown to segregate in families. In this study, we show segregation of the putative pathogenic MSH6 missense mutation c.1346T>C p.Leu449Pro with microsatellite instability-high Lynch syndrome-related tumours lacking MSH6 expression in a large 17th century pedigree. Another large family with the MSH6 nonsense c.2931C>G, p.Tyr977X mutation is similar in tumour spectra, age of onset and cumulative risk. These MSH6 families, despite their late age of onset, have a high lifetime risk of all Lynch syndrome-related cancers, significantly higher in women (89% by age 80) than in men (69%). The gender differences are in part explained by high endometrial (70%) and ovarian (33%) cancer risks added upon the high colorectal cancer risk (60%). The several occurrences of breast cancer are not due to the MSH6 mutations. These findings are of great importance for counselling, management and surveillance of families with MSH6 mutations.
  • Claesson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of intestinal preconditioning in a porcine model using classic ischemic preconditioning or lung recruitment maneuvers.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Shock. - 1073-2322 .- 1540-0514. ; 21:1, s. 98-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To test the hypotheses that repeated brief intestinal ischemic insults would elicit an intestinal preconditioning response to a subsequent intestinal I/R injury and that a similar response would be elicited by repeated lung recruitment maneuvers (RMs). Randomized experimental controlled animal study. University hospital animal laboratory. Eighteen anesthetized pigs. Animals were randomized to one of three groups, with six animals in each group. Control group 75-min superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion followed by 60-min reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning group, three 5-min-long SMA occlusions preceding 75-min SMA occlusion and 60-min reperfusion. Recruitment maneuver (RM) group, three 2-min-long RMs preceding 75-min SMA occlusion and 60-min reperfusion. We measured systemic and mesenteric hemodynamic parameters, jejunal mucosal perfusion, net mesenteric lactate flux, jejunal tissue oxygen tension, and mesenteric oxygenation. Every 15 min, jejunal microdialysate samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, lactate, and glycerol. Jejunal tissue samples were collected postmortem. After occlusion of SMA, regional parameters in all groups indicated abolished perfusion and gradually increasing intraluminal microdialysate lactate and glycerol levels. At reperfusion, regional parameters indicated mesenteric hyperperfusion, whereas microdialysis markers of mucosal anaerobic metabolism and cell injury decreased, although not reaching baseline. Histological examination revealed severe mucosal injury in all groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the observed parameters. No protective preconditioning response could be observed when performing repeated brief intestinal ischemic insults or repeated lung RMs before an intestinal I/R injury.
  • Palmqvist, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • hTERT gene copy number is not associated with hTERT RNA expression or telomerase activity in colorectal cancer
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Geneve : International union against cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 116:3, s. 395-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a majority of malignant human tumors telomerase activity can be detected, suggesting an immortal phenotype. Expression of the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, in the human telomerase complex is required for telomerase activity. The regulation of hTERT, from gene level to a fully functional protein, is still a poorly understood process. Increased copy number of the hTERT gene has been demonstrated in a significant portion of established cell lines and tumors of different origin but its relevance for telomerase activity levels is unclear. In the present study, we examined the hTERT gene copy number using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in samples from 64 colorectal carcinomas and an increased copy number (≥ 3 hTERT gene copies/nucleus) was observed in 31 cases (48%). No statistical association existed between hTERT gene copy number and hTERT RNA expression or telomerase activity. However, a significant relationship was found between an increase in hTERT gene copy number and p53 protein accumulation (p = 0.002) and aneuploidy (p = 0.036). Only 4 tumors showed microsatellite instability, 3 of which had a normal hTERT gene copy number. The data indicated that the increased copy number of the hTERT gene in colorectal carcinoma was a result of genomic instability with no obvious consequence for telomerase activity levels.
  • Tjonneland, A., et al. (författare)
  • Linoleic acid, a dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the aetiology of ulcerative colitis: a nested case-control study within a European prospective cohort study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-3288 .- 0017-5749. ; 58:12, s. 1606-1611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Dietary linoleic acid, an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is metabolised to arachidonic acid, a component of colonocyte membranes. Metabolites of arachidonic acid have pro-inflammatory properties and are increased in the mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. The aim of this investigation was to conduct the first prospective cohort study investigating if a high dietary intake of linoleic acid increases the risk of developing incident ulcerative colitis. Design and setting: Dietary data from food frequency questionnaires were available for 203 193 men and women aged 30-74 years, resident in the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Germany or Italy and participating in a prospective cohort study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). These participants were followed up for the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Each case was matched with four controls and the risk of disease calculated by quartile of intake of linoleic acid adjusted for gender, age, smoking, total energy intake and centre. Results: A total of 126 participants developed ulcerative colitis (47% women) after a median follow-up of 4.0 years (range, 1.7-11.3 years). The highest quartile of intake of linoleic acid was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23 to 5.07, p = 0.01) with a significant trend across quartiles (OR = 1.32 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.66, p = 0.02 for trend). Conclusions: The data support a role for dietary linoleic acid in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis. An estimated 30% of cases could be attributed to having dietary intakes higher than the lowest quartile of linoleic acid intake.
  • Van Guelpen, B, et al. (författare)
  • Low folate levels may protect against colorectal cancer.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 1458-3288 .- 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 55:10, s. 1461-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dietary folate is believed to protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). However, few studies have addressed the role of circulating levels of folate. The aim of this study was to relate prediagnostic plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms to the risk of developing CRC. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 226 cases and 437 matched referents from the population based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. RESULTS: We observed a bell-shaped association between plasma folate concentrations and CRC risk; multivariate odds ratio for middle versus lowest quintile 2.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-3.56). In subjects with follow up times greater than the median of 4.2 years however, plasma folate concentrations were strongly positively related to CRC risk; multivariate odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile 3.87 (95% CI 1.52-9.87; p trend = 0.007). Homocysteine was not associated with CRC risk. Multivariate odds ratios for the MTHFR polymorphisms were, for 677 TT versus CC, 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.85; p trend = 0.062), and for 1298 CC versus AA, 1.62 (95% CI 0.94-2.81; p trend = 0.028). Interaction analysis suggested that the result for 1298A>C may have been largely due to linkage disequilibrium with 677C>T. The reduced CRC risk in 677 TT homozygotes was independent of plasma folate status. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a decreased CRC risk in subjects with low folate status. This possibility of a detrimental component to the role of folate in carcinogenesis could have implications in the ongoing debate in Europe concerning mandatory folate fortification of foods.
  • Dahlin, Anna M, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations and the risk of colorectal cancer : a nested case-referent study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 32:2, s. 304-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this nested case-referent study, we related plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 to the risk of colorectal cancer, taking into consideration prediagnostic plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations. Subjects were 226 cases and double matched referents from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Follow-up times from recruitment to diagnosis ranged from 0.1 to 12.7 years, with a median of 4.2 years. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were inversely associated with the risk of rectal cancer: univariate odds ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile 0.34 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.13-0.83), p(trend) = 0.004. Risk estimates were attenuated slightly but remained statistically significant after adjustment for body mass index, current smoking, recreational and occupational physical activity, alcohol intake and prediagnostic plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations: OR 0.30 (95% CI 0.08-0.99), p(trend) = 0.025. The corresponding univariate and fully adjusted odds ratios for colon cancer were 1.25 (CI 0.66-2.36), p(trend) = 0.185 and 1.42 (CI 0.67-3.05), p(trend) = 0.113, respectively. The observed over-risk was attributable to left-sided colon cancer. Interaction analyses including vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were in line with the results for vitamin B12 alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that increasing levels of plasma vitamin B12, alone or together with other factors involved in one-carbon metabolism, may reduce the risk of rectal cancer, whereas for colon cancer, the association appears to be less clear.
  • Eklöf, Vincy, et al. (författare)
  • The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) 80G>A and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) 1561C>T polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer : a nested case-referent study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. - 0036-5513 .- 1502-7686. ; 68:5, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate uptake and metabolism may affect folate status and, thereby, the risk of cancer. In this nested case‐referent study, we related two such polymorphisms, reduced folate carrier (RFC1) 80G>A and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) 1561C>T, to the risk of colorectal cancer, taking into account pre‐diagnostic plasma folate and total homocysteine concentrations and the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism, which were analysed in a previous study. Material and methods. Subjects were 220 cases and 414 matched referents from the population‐based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Results. The RFC1 80A‐allele was associated with reduced plasma folate and elevated plasma total homocysteine concentrations, but the result was statistically significant only for folate. In contrast, the FOLH1 1561T‐allele was associated with higher plasma folate and reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations, and the result was statistically significant only for homocysteine. Neither polymorphism was related to the risk of colorectal cancer, either in univariate analysis or after adjusting for body mass index, current smoking, recreational and occupational physical activity and alcohol intake. Further adjustment for folate or homocysteine status or the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism did not affect risk estimates. Subjects with the RFC1 80AA genotype in combination with low plasma folate concentrations or the MTHFR 677TT genotype had a reduced risk of colorectal cancer of borderline statistical significance. Conclusions. These findings suggest that although the RFC1 80G>A and FOLH1 1561C>T polymorphisms may influence folate status, they are not likely to have a major independent role in the development of colorectal cancer. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365510701805431
  • Ferrari, Pietro, et al. (författare)
  • Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of colon and rectal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 121:9, s. 2065-2072
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol consumption may be associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the epidemiological evidence for an association with specific anatomical subsites, types of alcoholic beverages and current vs. lifetime alcohol intake is inconsistent. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 478,732 study subjects free of cancer at enrolment between 1992 and 2000 were followed up for an average of 6.2 years, during which 1,833 CRC cases were observed. Detailed information on consumption of alcoholic beverages at baseline (all cases) and during lifetime (1,447 CRC cases, 69% of the cohort) was collected from questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the alcohol-CRC association. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, lifetime alcohol intake was significantly positively associated to CRC risk (hazard ratio, HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12 for 15 g/day increase), with higher cancer risks observed in the rectum (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.06-1.18) than distal colon (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.01-1.16), and proximal colon (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92-1.12). Similar results were observed for baseline alcohol intake. When assessed by alcoholic beverages at baseline, the CRC risk for beer (HR = 1.38, 95% CI `= 1.08-1.77 for 20-39.9 vs. 0.1-2.9 g/day) was higher than wine (HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.44), although the two risk estimates were not significantly different from each other. Higher HRs for baseline alcohol were observed for low levels of folate intake (1.13, 95% CI = 1.06-1.20 for 15 g/day increase) compared to high folate intake (1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.09). In this large European cohort, both lifetime and baseline alcohol consumption increase colon and rectum cancer risk, with more apparent risk increases for alcohol intakes greater than 30 g/day. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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