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Sökning: WFRF:(Palmqvist Richard) > (2005-2009)

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  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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  • Gao, Ge, 1972 (författare)
  • Changes of evapotranspiration and water cycle in China during the past decades
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Evapotranspiration is the second largest quantity in the water cycle and an important indicator for climate changes. Accurate estimations and better understanding of evapotranspiration are required in hydrologic studies and water resources modelling under stationary and changing climate conditions. Under the background of global warming and climate change over the last 50 years in China, what was the change in evapotranspiration? How the change has impacted on the water cycle? To address these questions effectively, this thesis focuses on the study of potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration over China. This study begins with a comparison between the estimates for potential evapotranspiration using the Penman-Monteith and the Thornthwaite methods as well as the pan data. The Penman-Monteith method is considered as the most physical and reliable method, while the Thornthwaite method is the most practical and widely used method. The comparison focuses on the usefulness of the Thornthwaite estimates, which can guide the use of this simple method in China. In the second stage of the study, the seasonal and annual potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith method for China as a whole and for the major basins are investigated. Then, the modified Thornthwaite water balance model is used to examine the regional and country scale changing properties of actual evapotranspiration over China during 1960-2002. Finally, a detailed investigation of the regional actual evapotranspiration estimated by using the Thornthwaite water balance method and the two complementary relationship methods ( advection aridity (AA) model and Granger and Gray (GG) model) is performed in the Haihe River basin in northern China. The results show that the Thornthwaite estimates result in different regional patterns and temporal trends, while the pan measurements display a consistent regional pattern and similar trends as compared with that of Penman-Monteith estimates. Overall, the pan measurements are more useful than the Thornthwaite estimates if appropriate pan coefficients are determined. The declining trends in potential evapotranspiration in most part of China during 1956-2000 are detected except for the Songhua River basin in Northeastern China where an insignificant increasing trend is found. Generally, declining trends of sunshine duration and/or wind speed at the same period appear to be the major causes for the negative trend of the potential evapotranspiration in most areas. The annual actual evapotranspiration had a decreasing trend during 1960-2002 in most areas east of 100ºE and there was an increasing trend in the west and the north parts of Northeast China. In the humid southeast part of China, the spatial distribution of the temporal trend for the actual evapotranspiration is similar to and dominated by that of the potential evapotranspiration. But in the arid northwest region, the trend in precipitation controlled the long-term changes of the annual actual evapotranspiration. In the other regions, the combined effects of the changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration played a key role.
  • Hahn, Robert G., et al. (författare)
  • Preoperative fluid retention increases blood loss during major open abdominal surgery
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Perioperative Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 2047-0525. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundQuantification of renal fluid conservation is possible by urine analysis, and the results can indicate dehydration. The present report sought to determine whether this fluid retention correlates with fluid requirements during major abdominal surgeries that have estimated operating times ≥ 2 h.MethodsUrine colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine concentration were used to calculate a composite “fluid retention index” (FRI) in 97 patients prior to major abdominal surgery. Goal-directed fluid volume optimization, with hydroxyethyl starch supplemented with a background administration of crystalloid fluid, was used.ResultsThe median preoperative FRI was 3.0. Fluid retention, considered as present when FRI ≥ 3.5, was found in 37% of the patients. Fluid retention was followed by a significantly larger blood loss (+ 125%; 450 vs. 200 ml), higher haemorrhage rate (+ 41%; 123 vs. 87 ml/h) and greater need for both colloid (+ 43%; 1.43 vs. 1.00 l) and crystalloid (+ 18%; 1.28 vs. 1.08 l) fluids. Despite the larger blood loss, the total fluid balance was more positive after surgery in the dehydrated patients (+ 26%; 1.91 vs. 1.51 l; P < 0.02).ConclusionsPreoperative fluid retention, as detected in a urine sample, was associated with a greater blood loss and a more positive fluid balance during major abdominal surgery.
  • Harrysson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Efficient experimental evaluation of a MIMO handset with user influence
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 1536-1276. ; 9:2, s. 853-863
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The immediate environment of handset antennas, including the casings and the users holding the handsets, has a strong impact on the radio channel in mobile communication. In this paper we investigate a composite channel method that synthetically combines double-directional measurements of the userless propagation channel with measured super-antenna patterns, i.e., patterns of the combined antenna-casing-user arrangement. We experimentally evaluate the method by comparing results (power, capacity, and eigenvalue distribution) obtained from this composite method with direct measurements in the same environment. The measurements were done in two static 8 × 4 MIMO scenarios at 2.6 GHz, with the user indoors and the base station located outdoors and indoors, respectively. A realistic user phantom together with a “smart-phone” handset mock-up with four antenna elements was used, and different configurations and orientations were tested. The method gives statistical distributions of the MIMO eigenvalues, that are close to the measured. By using the composite method, we found that the user, apart from introducing hand and body loss that mainly decreases the SNR of the channel, slightly increases the correlation between the fading at the antenna elements.
  • Harrysson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of an Outdoor-to-In-Car Radio Channel with a Four-Antenna Handset and a User Phantom
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Vehicular Technology Conference VTC 2011-Fall. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc..
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on static outdoor channel measurements we evaluate the influence of a vehicle on the MIMO radio channel, from a base station antenna array, to a multiple antenna handset in the hand of a user placed inside a test car. The measurement scenario is chosen to mimic a 2.6 GHz (LTE) macro-cell urban or rural scenario with two locations and orientations of the car, one at an open parking lot with a strong line-of-sight component, and one between buildings with no line-of-sight. The measurements are repeated several times with the user phantom plus handset positioned at the same spot within the car and with the car absent. Figures of the penetration loss, impact on fading statistics, mean delay, delay spread, terminal antenna correlation, eigenvalue distributions, as well as the performance of various hybrid diversity combining and spatial multiplexing schemes, are evaluated and compared with and without the vehicle present. It is found that the car make the channel statistics become more Rayleigh like and increases multipath channel richness, improving the potential of diversity gain and, to some extent, spatial multiplexing.
  • Hunden i kult och religion : på gränsen mellan heligt och profant
  • 2009
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Hunden och människan har följts åt sedan urminnes tider, något som har varit till fördel för båda arter. Hunden har bland annat fått skydd och föda, men samtidigt kunnat sprida sig över hela jorden. Människan har förstått att använda hunden för en rad ändamål, bl.a. har den fått vakta hennes bostäder och boskap, burit och släpat hennes ägodelar, givit sällskap och förnöjelse, samt tjänat som pälsproducent, medicinkälla och köttreserv. Hunden har dessutom spelat en viktig roll i människans religiösa och rituella liv. Mångsidigheten i hur hunden ingått i människans världsbilder vittnar om den komplexitet som kännetecknar banden mellan tamdjuret och dess ägare.
  • Jemander, S.T., et al. (författare)
  • Surface structure of Si(100) with submonolayer coverages of C
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science. - : Elsevier. - 1073-5615 .- 1543-1916. ; 89:1-3, s. 415-419
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a combined STM, LEED and AES study of Si(100) surfaces prepared by coevaporation from two MBE-sources with Si and SiC, respectively. The flux from the SiC source contains 10% C, enabling studies of deposited layers with C-concentrations in the range 0-10%. After room temperature deposition, the structures have been annealed at 600 °C to generate a c(4 × 4) reconstruction. This has previously been reported to contain from 0.0 to 0.5 monolayers (ML) of C. Annealing at 800 °C irreversibly transforms the c(4 × 4) surface to a 2 × 1-reconstructed surface that contains precipitates of SiC. Since only 0.07 ML of C is needed to have 98% of the surface covered with the c(4 × 4) reconstruction, we conclude that the c(4 × 4) reconstruction is impurity-induced rather than having C-atoms in well defined positions within each unit cell. The c(4 × 4) reconstruction is attributed to a basic structure containing buckled parallel ad-dimers, which in approximately 50% of the reconstructed unit cells is decorated with perpendicular dimers. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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