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  • Bzhalava, Davit, et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenetically diverse TT virus viremia among pregnant women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Virology. - : Elsevier. - 1096-0341 .- 0042-6822. ; 432:2, s. 427-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infections during pregnancy have been suggested to be involved in childhood leukemias. We used high-throughput sequencing to describe the viruses most readily detectable in serum samples of pregnant women. Serum DNA of 112 mothers to leukemic children was amplified using whole genome amplification. Sequencing identified one TT virus (TTV) isolate belonging to a known type and two putatively new TTVs. For 22 mothers, we also performed ITV amplification by general primer PCR before sequencing. This detected 39 TTVs, two of which were identical to the Tilts found after whole genome amplification. Altogether, we found 40 TTV isolates, 29 of which were putatively new types (similarities ranging from 89% to 69%). In conclusion, high throughput sequencing is useful to describe the known or unknown viruses that are present in serum samples of pregnant women. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Cnattingius, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal Obesity and Risk of Preterm Delivery
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 309:22, s. 2362-2370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality, morbidity, and long-term disability, and these risks increase with decreasing gestational age. Obesity increases the risk of preterm delivery, but the associations between overweight and obesity and subtypes of preterm delivery are not clear. Objective To study the associations between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and risk of preterm delivery by gestational age and by precursors of preterm delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based cohort study of women with live singleton births in Sweden from 1992 through 2010. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics were obtained from the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Register. Main Outcomes and Measures Risks of preterm deliveries (extremely, 22-27 weeks; very, 28-31 weeks; and moderately, 32-36 weeks). These outcomes were further characterized as spontaneous (related to preterm contractions or preterm premature rupture of membranes) and medically indicated preterm delivery (cesarean delivery before onset of labor or induced onset of labor). Risk estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, smoking, education, height, mother's country of birth, and year of delivery. Results Among 1 599 551 deliveries with information on early pregnancy BMI, 3082 were extremely preterm, 6893 were very preterm, and 67 059 were moderately preterm. Risks of extremely, very, and moderately preterm deliveries increased with BMI and the overweight and obesity-related risks were highest for extremely preterm delivery. Among normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-<25), the rate of extremely preterm delivery was 0.17%. As compared with normal-weight women, rates (%) and adjusted odds ratios (ORs [95% CIs]) of extremely preterm delivery were as follows: BMI 25 to less than 30 (0.21%; OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15-1.37), BMI 30 to less than 35 (0.27%; OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.39-1.79), BMI 35 to less than 40 (0.35%; OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.66-2.45), and BMI of 40 or greater (0.52%; OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.28-3.92). Risk of spontaneous extremely preterm delivery increased with BMI among obese women (BMI >= 30). Risks of medically indicated preterm deliveries increased with BMI among overweight and obese women. Conclusions and Relevance In Sweden, maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy were associated with increased risks of preterm delivery, especially extremely preterm delivery. These associations should be assessed in other populations.
  • da Silva, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Resolution characterization of a silicon-based, photon-counting computed tomography prototype capable of patient scanning
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: EXCITING-CT, European Union’s Horizon 2020 Grant Agreement No. 750564. - USA : SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Photon-counting detectors are expected to bring a range of improvements to patient imaging with x-ray computed tomography (CT). One is higher spatial resolution. We demonstrate the resolution obtained using a commercial CT scanner where the original energy-integrating detector has been replaced by a single-slice, silicon-based, photon-counting detector. This prototype constitutes the first full-field-of-view silicon-based CT scanner capable of patient scanning. First, the pixel response function and focal spot profile are measured and, combining the two, the system modulation transfer function is calculated. Second, the prototype is used to scan a resolution phantom and a skull phantom. The resolution images are compared to images from a state-of-the-art CT scanner. The comparison shows that for the prototype 19 lp∕cm are detectable with the same clarity as 14 lp∕cm on the reference scanner at equal dose and reconstruction grid, with more line pairs visible with increasing dose and decreasing image pixel size. The high spatial resolution remains evident in the anatomy of the skull phantom and is comparable to that of other photon-counting CT prototypes present in the literature. We conclude that the deep silicon-based detector used in our study could provide improved spatial resolution in patient imaging without increasing the x-ray dose.
  • Engberg, Anna E., et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of complement activation on a model biomaterial surface by streptococcal M protein-derived peptides
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Biomaterials. - : Elsevier. - 1878-5905 .- 0142-9612. ; 30:13, s. 2653-2659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate a new approach to inhibit complement activation triggered by biomaterial surfaces in contact with blood. In order to inhibit complement activation initiated by the classical pathway (CP), we used streptococcal M protein-derived peptides that specifically bind human C4BP, an inhibitor of the CP. The peptides were used to coat polystyrene microtiter wells which served as a model biomaterial. The ability of coated peptides to bind C4BP and to attenuate complement activation via the CP (monitored as generation of fluid-phase C3a and binding of fragments of C3 and C4 to the surface) was investigated using diluted normal human serum, where complement activation by the AP is minimal, as well as serum from a patient lacking alternative pathway activation. Complement activation (all parameters) was significantly decreased in serum incubated in well surfaces coated with peptides. Total inhibition of complement activation was obtained at peptide coating concentrations as low as 1-5 mu g/mL. Successful use of Streptococcus-derived peptides shows that it is feasible to control complement activation at a model biomaterial surface by capturing autologous complement regulatory molecules from plasma. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Enlund, Fredrik, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular analyses of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES. - 0909-8836. ; 112:6, s. 545-547
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 6 are a characteristic feature of all major subtypes of malignant salivary gland tumors. Moreover, a subgroup of adenoid cystic carcinomas have t(6;9)(q23-25;p21-24) translocations with breakpoints located within the commonly deleted region. Here we have examined the possible involvement of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in these deletions and translocations. Northern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of a series of 27 salivary gland tumors revealed no significant changes in the gene expression or rearrangements of PLAGL1. FISH analysis also demonstrated that the 6q translocation breakpoint in adenoid cystic carcinomas with t(6;9) is proximal to the PLAGL1 locus. Collectively, these results indicate that PLAGL1 is not likely to be the major target gene of the 6q rearrangements in salivary gland tumors.
  • Eriksson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor-Specific Bacteriophages Induce Tumor Destruction through Activation of Tumor-Associated Macrophages
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immunology. - 0022-1767 .- 1550-6606. ; 182:5, s. 3105-3111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently reported that administration of tumor-specific bacteriophages initiates infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes with subsequent regression of established B16 tumors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of action of bacteriophage-induced tumor regression and to examine possible stimulatory effects of bacteriophages on macrophages. We observed that the mechanism of phage-induced tumor regression is TLR dependent as no signs of tumor destruction or neutrophil infiltration were observed in tumors in MyD88(-/-) mice in which TLR signaling is abolished. The microenvironment of bacteriophage-treated tumors was further analyzed by gene profiling through applying a low-density array preferentially designed to detect genes expressed by activated APCs, which demonstrated that the M2-polarized tumor microenvironment switched to a more M1-polarized milieu following phage treatment. Bacteriophage stimulation induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in both normal mouse macrophages and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and increased expression of molecules involved in Ag presentation and costimulation. Furthermore, mouse neutrophils selectively migrated toward mediators secreted by bacteriophage-stimulated TAMs. Under these conditions, the neutrophils also exhibited increased cytotoxicity toward 1316 mouse melanoma target cells. These results describe a close interplay of the innate immune system in which bacteriophages, located to the tumor microenvironment due to their specificity, stimulate TAMs to secrete factors that promote recruitment of neutrophils and potentiate neutrophil-mediated tumor destruction.
  • Espinoza, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Open Answers to Survey Questions through Interactive Clustering and Theme Extraction
  • 2018
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Œis paper describes design principles for and the implementationof Gavagai Explorer—a new application which builds on interactivetext clustering to extract themes from topically coherent text setssuch as open text answers to surveys or questionnaires.An automated system is quick, consistent, and has full coverageover the study material. A system allows an analyst to analyze moreanswers in a given time period; provides the same initial resultsregardless of who does the analysis, reducing the risks of interraterdiscrepancy; and does not risk miss responses due to fatige orboredom. Œese factors reduce the cost and increase the reliabilityof the service. Œe most important feature, however, is relievingthe human analyst from the frustrating aspects of the coding task,freeing the e‚ort to the central challenge of understanding themes.Gavagai Explorer is available on-line at hŠp://explorer.gavagai.se
  • Espinoza, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Open Answers to Survey Questions throughInteractive Clustering and Theme Extraction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Conference on Human Information Interaction &amp; Retrieval. - : ACM Digital Library. ; , s. 317-320
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes design principles for and the implementation of Gavagai Explorer—a new application which builds on interactive text clustering to extract themes from topically coherent text sets such as open text answers to surveys or questionnaires.An automated system is quick, consistent, and has full coverage over the study material. A system allows an analyst to analyze more answers in a given time period; provides the same initial results regardless of who does the analysis, reducing the risks of inter-rater discrepancy; and does not risk miss responses due to fatigue or boredom. These factors reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the service. The most important feature, however, is relieving the human analyst from the frustrating aspects of the coding task, freeing the effort to the central challenge of understanding themes. Gavagai Explorer is available on-line at http://explorer.gavagai.se
  • Fornander, Louise Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Using Nanofluidic Channels to Probe the Dynamics of Rad51-DNA Filaments
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Journal. - 0006-3495 .- 1542-0086. ; 106:2, s. 692A-693A
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rad51 is a key protein involved in the strand exchange reaction, a reaction where genetic material is transferred between two homologous DNA strands. Strand exchange is initiated by Rad51 forming a helical filament around single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and the strand exchange is thereafter executed with a homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The structure of Rad51-DNA filaments, and also the activity of the strand exchange reaction, is dependent on the presence of ATP and dications, where Ca2+ has been shown to promote a higher degree of strand exchange than Mg2+.
  • Friederich-Persson, Malou, et al. (författare)
  • Increased kidney metabolism as a pathway to kidney tissue hypoxia and damage : effects of triiodothyronine and dinitrophenol in normoglycemic rats.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. - : Springer-Verlag New York. - 0065-2598 .- 2214-8019. ; 789, s. 9-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrarenal tissue hypoxia is an acknowledged common pathway to end-stage renal disease in clinically common conditions associated with development of chronic kidney disease, such as diabetes and hypertension. In diabetic kidneys, increased oxygen metabolism mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling results in decreased kidney oxygen tension (PO2) and contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated whether increased intrarenal oxygen metabolism per se can cause intrarenal tissue hypoxia and kidney damage, independently of confounding factors such as hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were untreated or treated with either triiodothyronine (T3, 10 g/kg bw/day, subcutaneously for 10 days) or the mitochondria uncoupler dinitrophenol (DNP, 30 mg/kg bw/day, oral gavage for 14 days), after which in vivo kidney function was evaluated in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance), renal blood flow (RBF, Transonic, PAH clearance), cortical PO2 (Clark-type electrodes), kidney oxygen consumption (QO2), and proteinuria. Administration of both T3 and DNP increased kidney QO2 and decreased PO2 which resulted in proteinuria. However, GFR and RBF were unaltered by either treatment. The present study demonstrates that increased kidney metabolism per se can cause intrarenal tissue hypoxia which results in proteinuria. Increased kidney QO2 and concomitantly reduced PO2 may therefore be a mechanism for the development of chronic kidney disease and progression to end-stage renal disease.
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