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  • Åhs, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Medial temporal lobe resection attenuates superior temporal sulcus response to faces
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - 0028-3932 .- 1873-3514. ; 61, s. 291-298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Face perception depends on activation of a core face processing network including the fusiform face area, the occipital face area and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is also involved in decoding facial expression and damage to the anterior MTL, including the amygdala, generally interferes with emotion recognition. The impairment in emotion recognition following anterior MTL injury can be a direct result from injured MTL circuitry, as well as an indirect result from decreased MTL modulation of areas in the core face network. To test whether the MTL modulates activity in the core face network, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activation in the core face processing network in patients with right or left anterior temporal lobe resections (ATR) due to intractable epilepsy. We found reductions of face-related activation in the right STS after both right and left ATR together with impaired recognition of facial expressions. Reduced activity in the fusiform and the occipital face areas was also observed in patients after right ATR suggesting widespread effects on activity in the core face network in this group. The reduction in face-related STS activity after both right and left ATR suggests that MTL modulation of the STS may facilitate recognition of facial expression.
  • Älgenäs, Cajsa, et al. (författare)
  • Antibody performance in western blot applications is context- dependent
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biotechnology Journal. - 1860-6768. ; 9:3, s. 435-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An important concern for the use of antibodies in various applications, such as western blot (WB) or immunohistochemistry (IHC), is specificity. This calls for systematic validations using well-designed conditions. Here, we have analyzed 13000 antibodies using western blot with lysates from human cell lines, tissues, and plasma. Standardized stratification showed that 45% of the antibodies yielded supportive staining, and the rest either no staining (12%) or protein bands of wrong size (43%). A comparative study of WB and IHC showed that the performance of antibodies is application-specific, although a correlation between no WB staining and weak IHC staining could be seen. To investigate the influence of protein abundance on the apparent specificity of the antibody, new WB analyses were performed for 1369 genes that gave unsupportive WBs in the initial screening using cell lysates with overexpressed full-length proteins. Then, more than 82% of the antibodies yielded a specific band corresponding to the full-length protein. Hence, the vast majority of the antibodies (90%) used in this study specifically recognize the target protein when present at sufficiently high levels. This demonstrates the context- and application-dependence of antibody validation and emphasizes that caution is needed when annotating binding reagents as specific or cross-reactive. WB is one of the most commonly used methods for validation of antibodies. Our data implicate that solely using one platform for antibody validation might give misleading information and therefore at least one additional method should be used to verify the achieved data.
  • Örtqvist, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Temporary preservation of beta-cell function by diazoxide treatment in childhood type 1 diabetes.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992. ; 27:9, s. 2191-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - We examined the effect of diazoxide, an ATP-sensitive K + channel opener and inhibitor of insulin secretion, on β-cell function and remission in children at clinical onset of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 56 subjects (21 girls and 35 boys, age 7-17 years) were randomized to 3 months of active treatment (diazoxide 5-7.5 mg/kg in divided doses) or placebo in addition to multiple daily insulin injections and were followed for 2 years. RESULTS - Diazoxide decreased circulating C-peptide concentrations by ∼50%. After cessation of the treatment, basal and meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations increased to a maximum at 6 months, followed by a decline. Meal-stimulated C-peptide concentration was significantly higher at 12 months (0.43 ± 0.22 vs. 0.31 ± 0.26 nmol/l, P = 0.018) and tended to fall less from clinical onset to 24 months in the diazoxide- vs. Placebo-treated patients (-0.05 ± 0.24 vs. -0.18 ± 0.26 nmol/l, P = 0.064). At 24 months, the meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations were 0.24 ± 0.20 and 0.20 ± 0.17 nmol/l, respectively. Side effects of diazoxide were prevalent. CONCLUSIONS - This study demonstrates that partial inhibition of insulin secretion for 3 months at onset of childhood type 1 diabetes suspends the period of remission and temporarily preserves residual insulin production. Further evaluation of the full potential of β-cell rest will require compounds with less side effects as well as protocols optimized for sustained secretory arrest.
  • Östman, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Family-Based Psycho-Education – A Model Outmoded in Psychiatric Services Today?
  • 2014
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Family-based psycho-education – a model outmoded in psychiatric services today? Aim: To illuminate aspects of the resistance against a family based intervention a qualitative interview study with professionals was accomplished. Background: Family-based psycho-educational models, developed in the beginning of the 1970s, have in several Cochrane reviews shown evidence for a reduced rate of relapse and increased adherence to medication. Studies included in these meta-analyses all encompassed patients receiving in-patient care, and requiring relatives partaking in an extensive educational program. A multi-center randomised control study in Sweden, aimed to investigate the effects of a twelve-month long intervention of a psycho - educational model for people with severe mental illness, SMI, in psychiatric and community settings, showed a powerful resistance from primarily the professionals which had been well trained in the model and secondly the patients which had been offered the intervention. Method: In-depth interviews with 24 professions in psychiatric and community outpatient settings engaged in the RCT study. Results: The findings showed that both patients and professional partners are skeptical about treatment programs of family psycho-pedagogical nature and prefer pure patient perspective and more acute short interventions. A reason for this was according to the professions lack of resources, while their patients experienced a hindrance in bothering their loved ones. Conclusion: The findings might show that the model per se is outmoded, not fitting the new structures of support, with reduced inpatient care, for people with SMI. In worst case, the findings might indicate that family psycho education, notwithstanding evidence based, is unavailable to people with SMI and their relatives which might contribute to a structural stigmatization of this population. More research is needed to understand if our findings are consistent with findings in other international contexts.
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