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51.
  • Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot, et al. (författare)
  • Virkestorkningens inverkan på impregnerbarhet i furusplint - Del III Inverkan av hyveldjup
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Projektets målsättning var att undersöka om och hur virkestorkning påverkar impregnerbarhet med vattenbaserat kopparmedel, samt att ge rekommendationer om hur torkningsbetingelserna kan göras så gynnsamma som möjligt för ett bra impregneringsresultat. I den studie som avrapporteras här har huvudfrågan varit hur olika hyveldjup påverkar impregneringsresultatet i centrumsågat furuvirke 50x125 mm. Virket torkades i labtork med målfuktkvoten 18 % med max torrtemperatur 75°C. Torkprocessen avslutades med en kombinerad vatten- och ångbasningskonditionering. Jämförelse gjordes mellan ohyvlat och följande tre olika hyveldjup: 0,7; 2,4 och 4,3 mm. Försöksvirket impregnerades industriellt med kopparbaserat medel enligt Nordiska Trä-skyddsföreningen (NTR) klass AB.Studien visar att hyvlat virke har bättre impregneringsresultat jämfört med ohyvlat virke. Det bästa resultatet erhålls vid det största hyveldjupet. Produktionsmässigt är det dock knappast ekonomiskt försvarbart med så stort hyveldjup runt om på virkesstyckets samtliga sidor. Ingen skillnad kunde ses mellan hyveldjupen 0,7 och 2,4 mm. Detta indikerar att även en ”lätt” hyvling ger ett signifikant bättre impregneringsresultat för konditionerat virke jämfört med ohyvlat.Om inga andra kvalitetskrav finns som motiverar en konditionering i slutet på torkprocessen är rekommendationen att ohyvlat virke som skall impregneras inte bör konditioneras. En konditioneringsfas kostar även tid, dvs. produktionskapacitet, vilket leder till en dubbel förlust om inga kvalitetskrav finns som motiverar konditionering av virket.
52.
  • Strålberg, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Cysteine proteinase inhibitors regulate human and mouse osteoclastogenesis by interfering with RANK signaling.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 1530-6860. ; 27:7, s. 2687-701
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage cultures, an effect associated with decreased mRNA expression of Acp5, Calcr, Ctsk, Mmp9, Itgb3, and Atp6i, without effect on proliferation or apoptosis. The effects were concentration dependent with half-maximal inhibition at 0.3 μM. Cystatin C also inhibited osteoclast formation when RANKL-stimulated osteoclasts were cultured on bone, leading to decreased formation of resorption pits. RANKL-stimulated cells retained characteristics of phagocytotic macrophages when cotreated with cystatin C. Three other cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatin D, Z-RLVG-CHN2 (IC50 0.1 μM), and E-64 (IC50 3 μM), also inhibited osteoclast formation in RANKL-stimulated macrophages. In addition, cystatin C, Z-RLVG-CHN2, and E-64 inhibited osteoclastic differentiation of RANKL-stimulated CD14(+) human monocytes. The effect by cystatin C on differentiation of bone marrow macrophages was exerted at an early stage after RANKL stimulation and was associated with early (4 h) inhibition of c-Fos expression and decreased protein and nuclear translocation of c-Fos. Subsequently, p52, p65, IκBα, and Nfatc1 mRNA were decreased. Cystatin C was internalized in osteoclast progenitors, a process requiring RANKL stimulation. These data show that cystatin C inhibits osteoclast differentiation and formation by interfering intracellularly with signaling pathways downstream RANK.
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53.
  • Strömdahl, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • HIV testing and prevention among foreign-born Men Who have Sex with Men : an online survey from Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is an increasing trend toward international migration worldwide. With it comes a challenge for public health and public funded health care systems to meet the migrating population's health needs. Men who have sex with men are a key population for HIV, contributing an estimated 42% of new HIV cases in Europe in 2013. HIV monitoring data suggest that foreign-born MSM are not only exposed to a high risk of HIV before migration but also while living in Sweden. The aim of this study is to examine HIV testing prevalence and uptake of HIV prevention interventions among foreign-born MSM living in Sweden.Methods: A web survey available in English and Swedish was conducted from October 1 to October 30, 2013 via a Scandinavian Web community for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intergender people. The web survey included modules on sociodemographics, condom use, sexual risk behaviour and HIV/STI testing experience. 244 eligible MSM participants born abroad and living in Sweden participated in the study. Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed.Results: Half of the foreign-born MSM participants in this study had been tested for HIV during the last 12 months. Participants who had lived in Sweden less than or equal to 5 years were more likely to have been tested for HIV during the last 12 months. Having talked about HIV/STI with a prevention worker during the past year was associated with having been tested for HIV. Requested services among the majority of participants were HIV rapid test, anonymous HIV testing, HIV/STI testing outside of the health care setting and MSM-friendly clinics.Conclusion: Efforts are needed to promote HIV testing among foreign-born MSM. Peer outreach, individual and group counselling may be preferred interventions to do so. In addition, it is critically important to increase HIV testing among foreign-born MSM who have lived in Sweden for more than five years. Further research should explore if scale up of implementation of requested services may increase frequency of HIV testing and detection of new cases linked to treatment among foreign-born MSM living in Sweden.
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54.
  • Sällström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes-induced hyperfiltration in adenosine A(1)-receptor deficient mice lacking the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - 1748-1708 .- 1748-1716. ; 190:3, s. 253-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Glomerular hyperfiltration is commonly found in diabetic patients early after the onset of disease. This is one of the first indications of the development of progressive diabetic nephropathy. It has been proposed that glomerular hyperfiltration is caused by decreased delivery of electrolytes to the macula densa due to the increased sodium and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which would increase the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. In this study, we investigated the role of TGF in diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration by inducing diabetes in adenosine A1-receptor knockout (A1AR−/−) mice known to lack a functional TGF mechanism.Methods: Diabetes was induced by alloxan (75 mg kg−1 bw) injected into the tail vein. The 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion was measured in metabolic cages, the GFR determined by inulin clearance under isoflurane-anaesthesia, and histological changes evaluated.Results: All alloxan-treated animals developed hyperglycaemia (≥20 mm). Normoglycaemic animals had a similar GFR independent of genotype (A1AR+/+ 9.3 ± 0.5 vs. A1AR−/− 10.1 ± 0.8 μL min−1g−1 bw) and diabetes resulted in similar glomerular hyperfiltration in both groups (A1AR+/+ 14.0 ± 1.7, n = 9 vs. A1AR−/− 15.3 ± 1.9 μL min−1g−1 bw). Diabetic animals had a similar tendency to develop interstitial fibrosis, whereas the glomerular volume was similar in both genotypes, and unaltered by diabetes.Conclusions: This study shows that the A1AR−/− mice develop diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration, demonstrating that the TGF mechanism is not the major cause of the development of hyperfiltration. Furthermore, the hyperfiltration in the present study was not related to alterations in the glomerular filtration area.
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55.
  • Sällström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of sodium-linked glucose reabsorption normalizes diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration in conscious adenosine A(1)-receptor deficient mice
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - Wiley. - 1748-1708. ; 210:2, s. 440-445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimGlomerular hyperfiltration is commonly observed in diabetics early after the onset of the disease and predicts the progression of nephropathy. Sustained hyperglycaemia is also closely associated with kidney hypertrophy and increased electrolyte and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In this study, we investigated the role of the increased tubular sodium/glucose cotransport for diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration. To eliminate any potential confounding effect of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism, we used adenosine A(1)-receptor deficient (A(1)AR(-/-)) mice known to lack a functional TGF mechanism and compared the results to corresponding wild-type animals (A(1)AR(+/+)). MethodsDiabetes was induced by an intravenous bolus injection of alloxan. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined in conscious mice by a single bolus injection of inulin. The sodium/glucose cotransporters were inhibited by phlorizin 30min prior to GFR measurements. ResultsNormoglycaemic animals had a similar GFR independent of genotype (A(1)AR(+/+) 23311 vs. A(1)AR(-/-) 241 +/- 25Lmin(-1)), and induction of diabetes resulted in glomerular hyperfiltration in both groups (A(1)AR(+/+) 380 +/- 25 vs. A(1)AR(-/-) 336 +/- 35Lmin(-1); both Pless than0.05). Phlorizin had no effect on GFR in normoglycaemic mice, whereas it reduced GFR in both genotypes during diabetes (A(1)AR(+/+) 365 +/- 18 to 295 +/- 19, A(1)AR(-/-) 354 +/- 38 to 199 +/- 15Lmin(-1); both Pless than0.05). Notably, the reduction was more pronounced in the A(1)AR(-/-) (Pless than0.05). ConclusionThis study demonstrates that increased tubular sodium/glucose reabsorption is important for diabetes-induced hyperfiltration, and that the TGF mechanism is not involved in these alterations, but rather functions to reduce any deviations from a new set-point.
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56.
  • Uhlén, Mathias, et al. (författare)
  • A human protein atlas for normal and cancer tissues based on antibody proteomics
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. - 1535-9476. ; 4:12, s. 1920-1932
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antibody-based proteomics provides a powerful approach for the functional study of the human proteome involving the systematic generation of protein-specific affinity reagents. We used this strategy to construct a comprehensive, antibody-based protein atlas for expression and localization profiles in 48 normal human tissues and 20 different cancers. Here we report a new publicly available database containing, in the first version, similar to 400,000 high resolution images corresponding to more than 700 antibodies toward human proteins. Each image has been annotated by a certified pathologist to provide a knowledge base for functional studies and to allow queries about protein profiles in normal and disease tissues. Our results suggest it should be possible to extend this analysis to the majority of all human proteins thus providing a valuable tool for medical and biological research.
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57.
  • Westerlund, Fredrik, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence Enhancement From Single DNA Molecules Confined In Si/SiO2 Nanochannels
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Society, 54th Annual Meeting.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A large challenge in biophysics when studying single molecules using fluorescence microscopy is to obtain a signal that is clearly detectable above the background noise. Ways to improve or optimize the fluorescence signal is therefore of great interest. We here study DNA extended in 320 nm deep funnel-shaped SiO2 nanochannels with a width ranging from 40nm to 600nm. The DNA is stained with a fluorescent dye (YOYO-1) and we show that the total emission from the DNA varies significantly with the dimensions of the channels (Figure) and has a peak intensity at half the wavelength of the emitted light. Measurements at varying salt concentrations, where the same confinement leads to different extension of the DNA, confirm that it is solely the geometry of the channel that governs the enhancement effect, ruling out alternative explanations, such as self-quenching. By using polarizers on the emission side we can investigate the light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the channel separately and we see that they show vastly different behavior with the peak in emission only detected in the light polarized parallel to the channels. We will discuss how our data may be explained by cavity-resonance effects when the lateral dimensions of the channels coincide with half the wavelength of the emitted light. Our results suggest that it is possible to fine-tune the size and shape of the nanochannels to maximize the number of photons collected from the molecule under study, for example when studying DNA interacting with single DNA-binding proteins where maximizing the photon budget is paramount.
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58.
  • Westerlund, Fredrik, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence enhancement from single DNA molecules confined in SiO 2 nanochannels
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: 14th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 2010, MicroTAS 2010; Groningen; Netherlands; 3 October 2010 through 7 October 2010. - 9781618390622
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate that the detected emission intensity from YOYO-labeled DNA molecules confined in 180 nm deep Si/SiO2 nanofunnels changes significantly and not monotonically with the width of the funnel, an emission enhancement that is only detected for emitted light polarized parallel to the channel. We explain the enhancement effect as being due to optical phenomena in the channels. The enhancement effect may be of importance for quantitative fluorescence microscopy and for experiments with a tight photon budget.
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59.
  • Westerlund, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence enhancement of single DNA molecules confined in Si/SiO2 nanochannels
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lab on a Chip. - Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1473-0189. ; 10:16, s. 2049-2051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate that the detected emission intensity from YOYO-labeled DNA molecules confined in 180 nm deep Si/SiO2 nano-funnels changes significantly and not monotonically with the width of the funnel. This effect may be of importance for quantitative fluorescence microscopy and for experiments with a tight photon budget.
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60.
  • Westerlund, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence microscopy of nanochannel-confined DNA
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Methods in Molecular Biology. - Humana Press. - 10643745. ; 1665, s. 173-198
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stretching of DNA in nanoscale confinement allows for several important studies. The genetic contents of the DNA can be visualized on the single DNA molecule level and both the polymer physics of confined DNA and also DNA/protein and other DNA/DNA-binding molecule interactions can be explored. This chapter describes the basic steps to fabricate the nanostructures, perform the experiments and analyze the data.
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