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  • Athan, E., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the outcome of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus left-sided infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics: a prospective cohort study by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Microbiology and Infection. - 1198743X .- 14690691. ; 23, s. 544-549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Objectives Left-sided methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) endocarditis treated with cloxacillin has a poorer prognosis when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate this using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis cohort and to analyse whether specific genetic characteristics were associated with a high vancomycin MIC (≥1.5 mg/L) phenotype. Methods All patients with left-sided MSSA infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics between 2000 and 2006 with available isolates were included. Vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest as either high (≥1.5 mg/L) or low (<1.5 mg/L). Isolates underwent spa typing to infer clonal complexes and multiplex PCR for identifying virulence genes. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between in-hospital and 1-year mortality, and vancomycin MIC phenotype. Results Sixty-two cases met the inclusion criteria. Vancomycin MIC was low in 28 cases (45%) and high in 34 cases (55%). No significant differences in patient demographic data or characteristics of infection were observed between patients with infective endocarditis due to high and low vancomycin MIC isolates. Isolates with high and low vancomycin MIC had similar distributions of virulence genes and clonal lineages. In-hospital and 1-year mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups (32% (9/28) vs. 27% (9/34), p 0.780; and 43% (12/28) vs. 29% (10/34), p 0.298, for low and high vancomycin MIC respectively). Conclusions In this international cohort of patients with left-sided MSSA endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactams, vancomycin MIC phenotype was not associated with patient demographics, clinical outcome or virulence gene repertoire.
  • Driemel, A., et al. (författare)
  • From pole to pole: 33 years of physical oceanography onboard R/V Polarstern
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Earth System Science Data. - 1866-3508. ; 9:1, s. 211-220
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measuring temperature and salinity profiles in the world's oceans is crucial to understanding ocean dynamics and its influence on the heat budget, the water cycle, the marine environment and on our climate. Since 1983 the German research vessel and icebreaker Polarstern has been the platform of numerous CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth instrument) deployments in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We report on a unique data collection spanning 33 years of polar CTD data. In total 131 data sets (1 data set per cruise leg) containing data from 10 063 CTD casts are now freely available at doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.860066. During this long period five CTD types with different characteristics and accuracies have been used. Therefore the instruments and processing procedures (sensor calibration, data validation, etc.) are described in detail. This compilation is special not only with regard to the quantity but also the quality of the data -the latter indicated for each data set using defined quality codes. The complete data collection includes a number of repeated sections for which the quality code can be used to investigate and evaluate long-term changes. Beginning with 2010, the salinity measurements presented here are of the highest quality possible in this field owing to the introduction of the OPTIMARE Precision Salinometer.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
  • Jakosky, B. M., et al. (författare)
  • The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Space Science Reviews. - 0038-6308 .- 1572-9672. ; 195:1-4, s. 3-48
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The MAVEN spacecraft launched in November 2013, arrived at Mars in September 2014, and completed commissioning and began its one-Earth-year primary science mission in November 2014. The orbiter's science objectives are to explore the interactions of the Sun and the solar wind with the Mars magnetosphere and upper atmosphere, to determine the structure of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes controlling it, to determine the escape rates from the upper atmosphere to space at the present epoch, and to measure properties that allow us to extrapolate these escape rates into the past to determine the total loss of atmospheric gas to space through time. These results will allow us to determine the importance of loss to space in changing the Mars climate and atmosphere through time, thereby providing important boundary conditions on the history of the habitability of Mars. The MAVEN spacecraft contains eight science instruments (with nine sensors) that measure the energy and particle input from the Sun into the Mars upper atmosphere, the response of the upper atmosphere to that input, and the resulting escape of gas to space. In addition, it contains an Electra relay that will allow it to relay commands and data between spacecraft on the surface and Earth.
  • Beral, V., et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian Cancer and Body Size: Individual Participant Meta-Analysis Including 25,157 Women with Ovarian Cancer from 47 Epidemiological Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 9:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. Methods and Findings: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p<0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p<0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p<0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. Conclusions: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade.
  • Beral, V., et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28 114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1474-5488. ; 13:9, s. 946-956
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence. Methods Eligible epidemiological studies were identified by electronic searches, review articles, and discussions with colleagues. Individual participant data for 28 114 women with and 94 942 without ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally, yielding adjusted relative risks (RRs) of ovarian cancer in smokers compared with never smokers. Findings After exclusion of studies with hospital controls, in which smoking could have affected recruitment, overall ovarian cancer incidence was only slightly increased in current smokers compared with women who had never smoked (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11, p=0.01). Of 17 641 epithelial cancers with specified histology, 2314 (13%) were mucinous, 2360 (13%) endometrioid, 969 (5%) clear-cell, and 9086 (52%) serous. Smoking-related risks varied substantially across these subtypes (p(heterogeneity)<0.0001). For mucinous cancers, incidence was increased in current versus never smokers (1.79, 95% CI 1.60-2.00, p<0.0001), but the increase was mainly in borderline malignant rather than in fully malignant tumours (2.25, 95% CI 1.91-2.65 vs 1.49, 1.28-1.73; p(heterogeneity)=0.01; almost half the mucinous tumours were only borderline malignant). Both endometrioid (0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.92, p=0.001) and clear-cell ovarian cancer risks (0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, p=0.03) were reduced in current smokers, and there was no significant association for serous ovarian cancers (0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.06, p=0.8). These associations did not vary significantly by 13 sociodemographic and personal characteristics of women including their body-mass index, parity, and use of alcohol, oral contraceptives, and menopausal hormone therapy. Interpretation The excess of mucinous ovarian cancers in smokers, which is mainly of tumours of borderline malignancy, is roughly counterbalanced by the deficit of endometrioid and clear-cell ovarian cancers. The substantial variation in smoking-related risks by tumour subtype is important for understanding ovarian carcinogenesis.
  • Börjeson S, Hursti TJ, Tishelman C, Peterson C, Steineck G, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of nausea and emesis during cancer chemotherapy : Discrepancies between antiemetic effect and well-being
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. - 0885-3924. ; 24:3, s. 345-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between antiemetic effect and well-being in patients receiving four different antiemetic treatment strategies, representing developments in the field during the past 15 years. A total of 162 women with ovarian cancer receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy and participating in two comparative antiemetic trials were enrolled and studied for up to four cycles. In study I, a combined antiemetic strategy including a nursing intervention program (increased access to support and increased information) and antiemetics based on high-dose metoclopramide and dexamethasone was compared with the standard antiemetic treatment during the 1980s. In study II, ondansetron plus dexamethasone/placebo was evaluated. The assessment methods used were similar for all patients. Questionnaires were used to assess frequency, intensity, and duration of nausea, emesis, anxiety, pain, and well-being at baseline, and for acute (24 hours after chemotherapy) and delayed (up to 2 weeks after chemotherapy) symptoms. The mean intensity of acute nausea during the first cycle was higher in the groups in study I, as compared to the groups in study II. The group receiving a nursing intervention reported better well-being than the other groups. Duration of nausea was an important predictor of well-being, even when nausea intensity was controlled. Apart from nausea intensity, nausea duration and nursing interventions may be important determinants for well-being during chemotherapy. © U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee, 2002.
  • Calle, E E, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 371:9609, s. 303-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Oral contraceptives were introduced almost 50 years ago, and over 100 million women currently use them. Oral contraceptives can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the eventual public-health effects of this reduction will depend on how long the protection lasts after use ceases. We aimed to assess these effects. Methods Individual data for 23 257 women with ovarian cancer (cases) and 87 303 without ovarian cancer (controls) from 45 epidemiological studies in 21 countries were checked and analysed centrally. The relative risk of ovarian cancer in relation to oral contraceptive use was estimated, stratifying by study, age, parity, and hysterectomy. Findings Overall 7308 (31%) cases and 32 717 (37%) controls had ever used oral contraceptives, for average durations among users of 4·4 and 5·0 years, respectively. The median year of cancer diagnosis was 1993, when cases were aged an average of 56 years. The longer that women had used oral contraceptives, the greater the reduction in ovarian cancer risk (p<0·0001). This reduction in risk persisted for more than 30 years after oral contraceptive use had ceased but became somewhat attenuated over time—the proportional risk reductions per 5 years of use were 29% (95% CI 23–34%) for use that had ceased less than 10 years previously, 19% (14–24%) for use that had ceased 10–19 years previously, and 15% (9–21%) for use that had ceased 20–29 years previously. Use during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s was associated with similar proportional risk reductions, although typical oestrogen doses in the 1960s were more than double those in the 1980s. The incidence of mucinous tumours (12% of the total) seemed little affected by oral contraceptives, but otherwise the proportional risk reduction did not vary much between different histological types. In high-income countries, 10 years use of oral contraceptives was estimated to reduce ovarian cancer incidence before age 75 from 1·2 to 0·8 per 100 users and mortality from 0·7 to 0·5 per 100; for every 5000 woman-years of use, about two ovarian cancers and one death from the disease before age 75 are prevented. Interpretation Use of oral contraceptives confers long-term protection against ovarian cancer. These findings suggest that oral contraceptives have already prevented some 200 000 ovarian cancers and 100 000 deaths from the disease, and that over the next few decades the number of cancers prevented will rise to at least 30 000 per year. Article Outline
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