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  • Gore, C., et al. (författare)
  • Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema : randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 42:1, s. 112-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Allergic disease has been associated with altered intestinal microbiota. Therefore, probiotics have been suggested as a potential treatment for eczema.Objective We investigated whether dietary supplementation of infants with eczema at age 3-6 months with Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-2116 or Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I3446 had a treatment effect or altered allergic disease progression.Methods Primary outcome included eczema severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, SCORAD) 3 months post-randomization. Secondary: SCORAD (other visits); infant dermatitis quality of life (IDQoL); gastrointestinal permeability; urinary eosinophilic protein X; allergen- sensitization; allergic symptoms (age 12, 18, 36 months). A total of 208 infants aged 3-6 months with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited; 137/208 (SCORAD >= 10, consuming >= 200 mL standard formula/day) were randomized to daily supplements containing L. paracasei or B. lactis or placebo for a 3-month period, while receiving extensively hydrolysed whey-formula (dairy-free diet). There were two open observational groups, one group exclusively breastfed (n = 22) and the other, standard formula-fed (n = 49). Trial number: ISRCTN41490500.Results Eczema severity decreased significantly over time in all groups. No significant difference was observed between randomized groups after 12-week treatment-period (SCORAD-score pre-/post-intervention: B. lactis 25.9 [95% CI: 22.8-29.2] to 12.8 [9.416.6]; L. paracasei 25.4 [22.1-29] to 12.5 [9.2-16.4]; placebo 26.9 [23.4-30.6] to 11.8 [9.6-14.3]; P = 0.7). Results were similar when analysis was controlled for allergen-sensitization, or when only sensitized infants were analysed. No differences were found for secondary outcomes. No difference was observed in SCORAD-score between randomized and observational groups.Conclusion and Clinical Relevance We found no benefit from supplementation with B. lactis or L. paracasei in the treatment of eczema, when given as an adjunct to basic topical treatment, and no effect on the progression of allergic disease from age 1 to 3 years.
  • Green, Richard E., et al. (författare)
  • Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1335-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs-the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds-we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs.
  • Hildenwall, H, et al. (författare)
  • Care-seeking in the development of severe community acquired pneumonia in Ugandan children
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. - 0272-4936 .- 1465-3281. ; 29:4, s. 281-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Improved case management of paediatric pneumonia is recognised as a key strategy for pneumonia control. Since symptoms of pneumonia and malaria often overlap, there are concerns that children with pneumonia are treated with antimalarial drugs. There is a need to describe how children with severe pneumonia have been managed prior to their arrival at hospital, including possible risks of developing more severe disease. Methods: A case-series study of 140 children, aged 2-59 months, with severe radiologically verified pneumonia at Mulago Hospital, Kampala was undertaken. Caretakers were interviewed about initial symptoms, treatment given and care sought. Using WHO definitions, children were clinically classified as having severe or very severe pneumonia. Results: The children had been ill for a median of 7 days before arrival at hospital, 90/140 (64%) had received treatment at home, and 72/140 (51%) had seen another health-care provider prior to presentation at hospital. Altogether, 32/140 (23%) children had reportedly received antibiotics only prior to admission, 18/140 (13%) had received anti-malarials only and 35/140 (25%) had received both. Being classified as very severe pneumonia was more common among children who had received anti-malarials only ( OR 5.5, 1.8-16.4). Conclusions: Although the majority of caretakers were able to recognise the key symptoms of pneumonia, they did not respond with any immediate care-giving action. Since progression from first recognition of pneumonia symptoms to severe disease is rapid, management guidelines regarding timing of care-seeking need to be clearly defined. The reason why children who sought health facility care failed to improve should be investigated. Meanwhile, there is a need to increase caretakers' and health workers' awareness of the urgency to act promptly when key pneumonia symptoms are observed.
  • Hill, M. S., et al. (författare)
  • Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:1, s. e50437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings: We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance: These results, using an independent nuclear gene set, confirmed many hypotheses based on ribosomal and/or mitochondrial genes, and they also identified clades with low statistical support or clades that conflicted with traditional morphological classification. Our results will serve as a basis for future exploration of these outstanding questions using more taxon- and gene-rich datasets.
  • Höök, Kristina, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Move to be moved
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings. - Association for Computing Machinery. ; s. 3301-3308
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Movement-based design is reaching critical mass in HCI, and we can start to identify strategies, similarities and differences in how it is approached. Similarities may include, for example, a strong first person perspective on design, emphasising movement, somatics and aesthetic sensibilities of the designer, as well as starting from the premise that our bodily ways of being in the world are shaped by the ecologies of people, cultural practices and the artefacts we create and use. Different classes of systems are starting to emerge, such as spurring somaesthetic appreciation processes using biofeedback loops or carefully nudging us to interact with our own movements; engaging us in affective loops where the technology takes on a stronger agency, attempting to pull participants into particular experiences; extending on our senses and perception - even creating new senses through technology; social interactions, engaging us to jointly explore movement or touch; even endowing machines with their own 'somatics', exploring our relationship to technology; as well as engaging in larger political issues around the body, such as gender perspectives, or challenging the mind-body divide.
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