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51.
  • Aggarwal, MM, et al. (författare)
  • Event-by-event fluctuations in particle multiplicities and transverse energy produced in 158A GeVPb plus Pb collisions
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 65:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Event-by-event fluctuations in the multiplicities of charged particles and photons, and the total transverse energy in 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions are studied for a wide range of centralities. For narrow centrality bins the multiplicity and transverse energy distributions are found to be near perfect Gaussians. The effect of detector acceptance on the multiplicity fluctuations has been studied and demonstrated to follow statistical considerations. The centrality dependence of the charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in the measured data has been found to agree reasonably well with those obtained from a participant model. However, for photons the multiplicity fluctuations have been found to be lower compared to those obtained from a participant model. The multiplicity and transverse energy fluctuations have also been compared to those obtained from the VENUS event generator.
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52.
  • Aggarwal, MM, et al. (författare)
  • Interferometry of direct photons in central 208Pb+208Pb collisions at 158A GeV
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 93:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two-particle correlations of direct photons were measured in central (208Pb+208Pb collisions at 158A GeV. The invariant interferometric radii were extracted for 100<K)(<300 MeV/c and compared to radii extracted from charged pion correlations. The yield of soft direct photons, K)(T)(T)<300 MeV/c, was extracted from the correlation strength and compared to theoretical calculations.
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53.
  • Aggarwal, M M, et al. (författare)
  • Azimuthal anisotropy of photon and charged particle emission in Pb-208+Pb-208 collisions at 158 center dot A GeV/c
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 41:3, s. 287-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The azimuthal distributions of photons and charged particles with respect to the event plane are investigated as a function of centrality in Pb-208 + Pb-208 collisions at 158 (.) A GeV/c in the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS. The anisotropy of the azimuthal distributions is characterized using a Fourier analysis. For both the photon and charged particle distributions the first two Fourier coefficients are observed to decrease with increasing centrality. The observed anisotropies of the photon distributions compare well with the expectations from the charged particle measurements for all centralities.
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54.
  • Aggarwal, MM, et al. (författare)
  • Transverse mass distributions of neutral pions from Pb-208-induced reactions at 158 center dot A GeV
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 23:2, s. 225-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results on transverse mass spectra of neutral pious measured at central rapidity are presented for impact parameter selected 158-A GeV Pb + Pb-1 and Pb + Nb collisions. The distributions cover the range 0.5 GeV/c(2) less than or equal to MT - Mo less than or equal to 4 GeV/c(2). The change of the spectral shape and the multiplicity with centrality is studied in detail. In going from p+p to semi-peripheral Pb+Pb collisions there is a nuclear enhancement increasing with transverse mass similar to the well known Cronin effect, while for very central collisions this enhancement appears to be weaker than expected.
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55.
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56.
  • Basu, N. B., et al. (författare)
  • Nutrient loads exported from managed catchments reveal emergent biogeochemical stationarity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 37:L23404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Complexity of heterogeneous catchments poses challenges in predicting biogeochemical responses to human alterations and stochastic hydro‐climatic drivers. Human interferences and climate change may have contributed to the demise of hydrologic stationarity, but our synthesis of a large body of observational data suggests that anthropogenic impacts have also resulted in the emergence of effective biogeochemical stationarity in managed catchments. Long‐term monitoring data from the Mississippi‐Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) and the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) reveal that inter‐annual variations in loads (<em>L</em><sub><em>T</em></sub>) for total‐N (TN) and total‐P (TP), exported from a catchment are dominantly controlled by discharge (<em>Q</em><sub><em>T</em></sub>) leading inevitably to temporal invariance of the annual, flow‐weighted concentration, <img src="http://www.diva-portal.org/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi?%5Coverline%7BC_%7Bf%7D%7D%5Cmathit%7B%7D" /> = (<em>L</em><sub><em>T</em></sub>/<em>Q</em><sub><em>T</em></sub>). Emergence of this consistent pattern across diverse managed catchments is attributed to the anthropogenic legacy of accumulated nutrient sources generating memory, similar to ubiquitously present sources for geogenic constituents that also exhibit a linear <em>L</em><sub><em>T</em></sub>‐<em>Q</em><sub><em>T</em></sub> relationship. These responses are characteristic of transport‐limited systems. In contrast, in the absence of legacy sources in less‐managed catchments, <img src="http://www.diva-portal.org/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi?%5Coverline%7BC_%7Bf%7D%7D%5Cmathit%7B%7D" /> values were highly variable and supply limited. We offer a theoretical explanation for the observed patterns at the event scale, and extend it to consider the stochastic nature of rainfall/flow patterns at annual scales. Our analysis suggests that: (1) expected inter‐annual variations in <em>L</em><sub><em>T</em></sub> can be robustly predicted given discharge variations arising from hydro‐climatic or anthropogenic forcing, and (2) water‐quality problems in receiving inland and coastal waters would persist until the accumulated storages of nutrients have been substantially depleted. The finding has notable implications on catchment management to mitigate adverse water‐quality impacts, and on acceleration of global biogeochemical cycles.</p>
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57.
  • Berger, Ashton C, et al. (författare)
  • A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell. - 1535-6108 .- 1878-3686. ; 33:4, s. 690-705.e9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Our aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. We found 61 somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) and 46 significantly mutated genes (SMGs). Eleven SCNAs and 11 SMGs had not been identified in previous TCGA studies of the individual tumor types. We found functionally significant estrogen receptor-regulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and gene/lncRNA interaction networks. Pathway analysis identified subtypes with high leukocyte infiltration, raising potential implications for immunotherapy. Using 16 key molecular features, we identified five prognostic subtypes and developed a decision tree that classified patients into the subtypes based on just six features that are assessable in clinical laboratories.</p>
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58.
  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. - Elsevier. - 2213-8595. ; 3:8, s. 624-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) >= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG >= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT >= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.
59.
  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY. - 2213-8587. ; 3:8, s. 624-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) &gt;= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG &gt;= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT &gt;= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.</p>
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60.
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