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61.
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62.
  • Gorini, Giacomo, et al. (författare)
  • Engagement of monocytes, NK cells, and CD4(+) Th1 cells by ALVAC-SIV vaccination results in a decreased risk of SIVmac251 vaginal acquisition
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS Pathogens. - 1553-7366 .- 1553-7374. ; 16:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ALVAC-HIV/gp120/alum regimen tested in 8,197 human volunteers (61.4% males, 38.6% females) in the RV144 trial decreased the risk of HIV infection similarly in both sexes. The ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum vaccine also reduced the risk of intrarectal SIVmac251 acquisition in both female and male vaccinated macaques at an average of 44% per exposure. In the current work, we tested whether this vaccine modality could also reduce the risk of intravaginal SIVmac251 exposure. In order to detect correlates of risk, we administered the virus by the intravaginal route and tested another vaccine regimen based on the vaccinia derivative poxvirus NYVAC in parallel. We demonstrate here that the ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum regimen decreases the risk of vaginal SIVmac251 acquisition (50% vaccine efficacy) and, importantly, we confirmed that subsets of monocytes and CD4(+) T cells are correlates of risk of acquisition. In addition, we uncovered cytotoxic vaginal NKG2A(+) cells and gut-homing alpha(4)beta(7) positive plasmablasts as novel correlates of risk of intravaginal virus acquisition. In contrast, NYVAC-SIV vaccination induced high levels of activated T cells and did not protect against SIVmac251 acquisition. We examined the contrasting immune responses to better understand the correlate of protection and found that the unique ability of ALVAC-SIV to activate early interferon responses and the inflammasome during priming differentiates the two poxvirus vectors. This work demonstrates the reproducibility of the efficacy observed in the ALVAC-based regimen and defines novel correlates of risk in the rigorous SIVmac251 macaque model, establishing a benchmark for future improvement of this vaccine approach. The recombinant Canarypox ALVAC-HIV/gp120/alum vaccine regimen was the first to significantly decrease the risk of HIV acquisition in humans, with equal effectiveness in both males and females. Similarly, an equivalent SIV-based ALVAC vaccine regimen decreased the risk of virus acquisition in Indian rhesus macaques of both sexes following intrarectal exposure to low doses of SIVmac251. Here, we demonstrate that the ALVAC-SIV/gp120/alum vaccine is also efficacious in female Chinese rhesus macaques following intravaginal exposure to low doses of SIVmac251 and we confirm that CD14(+) classical monocytes are a strong correlate of decreased risk of virus acquisition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of CD14(+) cells and/or their gene expression correlates with blood Type 1 CD4(+) T helper cells, alpha(4)beta(+)(7) plasmablasts, and vaginal cytocidal NKG2A(+) cells. To better understand the correlate of protection, we contrasted the ALVAC-SIV vaccine with a NYVAC-based SIV/gp120 regimen that used the identical immunogen. We found that NYVAC-SIV induced higher immune activation via CD4(+)Ki67(+)CD38(+) and CD4(+)Ki67(+)alpha(4)beta(+)(7) T cells, higher SIV envelope-specific IFN-gamma producing cells, equivalent ADCC, and did not decrease the risk of SIVmac251 acquisition. Using the systems biology approach, we demonstrate that specific expression profiles of plasmablasts, NKG2A(+) cells, and monocytes elicited by the ALVAC-based regimen correlated with decreased risk of virus acquisition.</p>
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63.
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64.
  • Justice, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8, s. 14977-14977
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.</p>
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65.
  • Justice, Anne E., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.</p>
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66.
  • Lu, Yingchang, et al. (författare)
  • New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.</p>
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