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Sökning: WFRF:(Rice John P.)

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  • Föregående 12345[6]
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51.
  • Wang, Thomas J, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 376:9736, s. 180-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is crucial for maintenance of musculoskeletal health, and might also have a role in extraskeletal tissues. Determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations include sun exposure and diet, but high heritability suggests that genetic factors could also play a part. We aimed to identify common genetic variants affecting vitamin D concentrations and risk of insufficiency. METHODS: We undertook a genome-wide association study of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in 33 996 individuals of European descent from 15 cohorts. Five epidemiological cohorts were designated as discovery cohorts (n=16 125), five as in-silico replication cohorts (n=9367), and five as de-novo replication cohorts (n=8504). 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, chemiluminescent assay, ELISA, or mass spectrometry. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as concentrations lower than 75 nmol/L or 50 nmol/L. We combined results of genome-wide analyses across cohorts using Z-score-weighted meta-analysis. Genotype scores were constructed for confirmed variants. FINDINGS: Variants at three loci reached genome-wide significance in discovery cohorts for association with 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and were confirmed in replication cohorts: 4p12 (overall p=1.9x10(-109) for rs2282679, in GC); 11q12 (p=2.1x10(-27) for rs12785878, near DHCR7); and 11p15 (p=3.3x10(-20) for rs10741657, near CYP2R1). Variants at an additional locus (20q13, CYP24A1) were genome-wide significant in the pooled sample (p=6.0x10(-10) for rs6013897). Participants with a genotype score (combining the three confirmed variants) in the highest quartile were at increased risk of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations lower than 75 nmol/L (OR 2.47, 95% CI 2.20-2.78, p=2.3x10(-48)) or lower than 50 nmol/L (1.92, 1.70-2.16, p=1.0x10(-26)) compared with those in the lowest quartile. INTERPRETATION: Variants near genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, hydroxylation, and vitamin D transport affect vitamin D status. Genetic variation at these loci identifies individuals who have substantially raised risk of vitamin D insufficiency. FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at end of paper (see Acknowledgments).
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52.
  • Ellinor, Patrick T., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis identifies six new susceptibility loci for atrial fibrillation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 44:6, s. 88-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation is a highly prevalent arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure and death(1). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, including 6,707 with and 52,426 without atrial fibrillation. Six new atrial fibrillation susceptibility loci were identified and replicated in an additional sample of individuals of European ancestry, including 5,381 subjects with and 10,030 subjects without atrial fibrillation (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Four of the loci identified in Europeans were further replicated in silico in a GWAS of Japanese individuals, including 843 individuals with and 3,350 individuals without atrial fibrillation. The identified loci implicate candidate genes that encode transcription factors related to cardiopulmonary development, cardiac-expressed ion channels and cell signaling molecules.
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53.
  • Lanza, Nina L., et al. (författare)
  • Oxidation of manganese in an ancient aquifer, Kimberley formation, Gale crater, Mars
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276. ; 43:14, s. 7398-7407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Curiosity rover observed high Mn abundances (&gt;25wt % MnO) in fracture-filling materials that crosscut sandstones in the Kimberley region of Gale crater, Mars. The correlation between Mn and trace metal abundances plus the lack of correlation between Mn and elements such as S, Cl, and C, reveals that these deposits are Mn oxides rather than evaporites or other salts. On Earth, environments that concentrate Mn and deposit Mn minerals require water and highly oxidizing conditions; hence, these findings suggest that similar processes occurred on Mars. Based on the strong association between Mn-oxide deposition and evolving atmospheric dioxygen levels on Earth, the presence of these Mn phases on Mars suggests that there was more abundant molecular oxygen within the atmosphere and some groundwaters of ancient Mars than in the present day
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54.
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55.
  • Ostrom, Quinn T., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-specific gene and pathway modeling of inherited glioma risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 1522-8517. ; 21:1, s. 71-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 25 risk variants for glioma, explaining 30% of heritable risk. Most histologies occur with significantly higher incidence in males, and this difference is not explained by currently known risk factors. A previous GWAS identified sex-specific glioma risk variants, and this analysis aims to further elucidate risk variation by sex using gene- and pathway-based approaches. Methods Results from the Glioma International Case-Control Study were used as a testing set, and results from 3 GWAS were combined via meta-analysis and used as a validation set. Using summary statistics for nominally significant autosomal SNPs (P &lt; 0.01 in a previous meta-analysis) and nominally significant X-chromosome SNPs (P &lt; 0.01), 3 algorithms (Pascal, BimBam, and GATES) were used to generate gene scores, and Pascal was used to generate pathway scores. Results were considered statistically significant in the discovery set when P &lt; 3.3 x 10(-6) and in the validation set when P &lt; 0.001 in 2 of 3 algorithms. Results Twenty-five genes within 5 regions and 19 genes within 6 regions reached statistical significance in at least 2 of 3 algorithms in males and females, respectively. EGFR was significantly associated with all glioma and glioblastoma in males only and a female-specific association in TERT, all of which remained nominally significant after conditioning on known risk loci. There were nominal associations with the BioCarta telomeres pathway in both males and females. Conclusions These results provide additional evidence that there may be differences by sex in genetic risk for glioma. Additional analyses may further elucidate the biological processes through which this risk is conferred.
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56.
  • Rajaraman, Preetha, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of glioma and meta-analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717. ; 131:12, s. 1877-1888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gliomas account for approximately 80 % of all primary malignant brain tumors and, despite improvements in clinical care over the last 20 years, remain among the most lethal tumors, underscoring the need for gaining new insights that could translate into clinical advances. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven new susceptibility regions. We conducted a new independent GWAS of glioma using 1,856 cases and 4,955 controls (from 14 cohort studies, 3 case-control studies, and 1 population-based case-only study) and found evidence of strong replication for three of the seven previously reported associations at 20q13.33 (RTEL), 5p15.33 (TERT), and 9p21.3 (CDKN2BAS), and consistent association signals for the remaining four at 7p11.2 (EGFR both loci), 8q24.21 (CCDC26) and 11q23.3 (PHLDB1). The direction and magnitude of the signal were consistent for samples from cohort and case-control studies, but the strength of the association was more pronounced for loci rs6010620 (20q,13.33; RTEL) and rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT) in cohort studies despite the smaller number of cases in this group, likely due to relatively more higher grade tumors being captured in the cohort studies. We further examined the 85 most promising single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified in our study in three replication sets (5,015 cases and 11,601 controls), but no new markers reached genome-wide significance. Our findings suggest that larger studies focusing on novel approaches as well as specific tumor subtypes or subgroups will be required to identify additional common susceptibility loci for glioma risk.
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57.
  • Sofer, Tamar, et al. (författare)
  • A fully adjusted two-stage procedure for rank-normalization in genetic association studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Genetic Epidemiology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0741-0395. ; 43:3, s. 263-275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When testing genotype–phenotype associations using linear regression, departure of the trait distribution from normality can impact both Type I error rate control and statistical power, with worse consequences for rarer variants. Because genotypes are expected to have small effects (if any) investigators now routinely use a two‐stage method, in which they first regress the trait on covariates, obtain residuals, rank‐normalize them, and then use the rank‐normalized residuals in association analysis with the genotypes. Potential confounding signals are assumed to be removed at the first stage, so in practice, no further adjustment is done in the second stage. Here, we show that this widely used approach can lead to tests with undesirable statistical properties, due to both combination of a mis‐specified mean–variance relationship and remaining covariate associations between the rank‐normalized residuals and genotypes. We demonstrate these properties theoretically, and also in applications to genome‐wide and whole‐genome sequencing association studies. We further propose and evaluate an alternative fully adjusted two‐stage approach that adjusts for covariates both when residuals are obtained and in the subsequent association test. This method can reduce excess Type I errors and improve statistical power.
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58.
  • Ulmert, David, et al. (författare)
  • Imaging androgen receptor signaling with a radiotracer targeting free prostate-specific antigen.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Discovery. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 2159-8274. ; 2:4, s. 320-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite intense efforts to develop radiotracers to detect cancers or monitor treatment response, few are widely used as a result of challenges with demonstrating clear clinical use. We reasoned that a radiotracer targeting a validated clinical biomarker could more clearly assess the advantages of imaging cancer. The virtues and shortcomings of measuring secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an androgen receptor (AR) target gene, in patients with prostate cancer are well documented, making it a logical candidate for assessing whether a radiotracer can reveal new (and useful) information beyond that conferred by serum PSA. Therefore, we developed (89)Zr-labeled 5A10, a novel radiotracer that targets "free" PSA. (89)Zr-5A10 localizes in an AR-dependent manner in vivo to models of castration-resistant prostate cancer, a disease state in which serum PSA may not reflect clinical outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate that (89)Zr-5A10 can detect osseous prostate cancer lesions, a context where bone scans fail to discriminate malignant and nonmalignant signals.
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