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Sökning: WFRF:(Rudnai Peter)

  • Resultat 21-29 av 29
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
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22.
  • Rafnar, Thorunn, et al. (författare)
  • European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human molecular genetics. - 1460-2083. ; 20:21, s. 4268-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10(-11). SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the 'urogenous contact hypothesis' that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC.
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23.
  • Rizzato, Cosmeri, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction between functional polymorphic variants in cytokine genes, established risk factors and susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma of skin
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 32:12, s. 1849-1854
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common neoplasm among the Caucasian population of the Western world. Inflammation may result in oxidative stress and contribute to promotion and progression of tumors, including BCC. The role of cytokines, which are inflammatory modulators, in the biology of tumors has been extensively studied and it is well known that they are aberrantly produced by cancer cells, macrophages and other phagocytic cells. Genetic polymorphisms are known in several cytokine genes, which result in altered expression. In the present association study, we investigated the association of 14 functional polymorphisms in 11 cytokines genes with BCC risk in 529 BCC cases and 532 healthy controls. We have also tested the possible interactions between the genetic variants and three known risk factors for BCC: skin complexion, sun effect and skin response to sun exposure. We did not observe any statistically significant association between SNPs and BCC risk. However, we found that, in a subgroup of subjects more prone to skin burns, carriers of at least one copy of the G allele of rs1800629 (TNF) had an increased risk of BCC [odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-4.16, P = 0.0005]. Moreover, in subjects less prone to sunburns, we observed that carriers of the C allele of rs1143627 (IL1B) showed a decreased risk (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.82, P = 0.0019). In conclusion, we found that two polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interacting with environmental risk factors could modulate BCC risk.
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24.
  • Rizzato, Cosmeri, et al. (författare)
  • POMC and TP53 genetic variability and risk of basal cell carcinoma of skin: Interaction between host and genetic factors
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Dermatological Science. - Elsevier. - 1873-569X. ; 63:1, s. 47-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common neoplasm among the Caucasian population of the western world. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced p53 activation promotes cutaneous pigmentation by increasing transcriptional activity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the skin. Induction of POMC/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) activates the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), resulting in skin pigmentation. The tumor suppressor p53 is a key player in stress responses that preserve genomic stability, responding to a variety of insults including DNA damage, hypoxia, metabolic stress and oncogene activation. Malfunction of the p53 pathway is an almost universal hallmark of human tumors. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding p53 (TP53) alter its transcriptional activity, which in turn may influence the UV radiation-induced tanning response. Objective: The aim of the present work is to test association between POMC and TP53 genetic variability, the possible interplay with host factors and the risk of basal cell carcinoma of skin. Methods: We covered the variability of the two genes we used 17 tagging polymorphisms in 529 BCC cases and 532 healthy controls. We have also tested the possible interactions between the genetic variants and three known risk factors for BCC: skin complexion, sun effect and skin response to sun exposure. Results: We did not observe any statistically significant association between SNPs in these two genes and BCC risk overall, nor interactions of SNPs with known BCC risk factors. However we found that, in the group of subjects with lower sun exposure, carriers of one copy of the C allele of the TP53 SNP rs12951053 had a decreased risk of BCC (OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.62, P = 0.002). Conclusions: We have observed that the interplay of an environmental risk factor and one polymorphism in TP53 gene could modulate the risk of BCC. (C) 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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25.
  • Rothman, Nathaniel, et al. (författare)
  • A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 42:11, s. 978-984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1: rs1014971, (P = 8 × 10⁻¹²) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1, rs8102137 (P = 2 × 10⁻¹¹) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1 and rs11892031 (P = 1 × 10⁻⁷) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previously identified genome-wide associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹), and found interactions with smoking in both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
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26.
  • Schindler, Birgit Karin, et al. (författare)
  • The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: Towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. - Elsevier. - 1618-131X. ; 217:6, s. 653-661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and between 18.9 and 45.3% for the phthalate metabolites. Plausibility control of the HBM results of all participating countries disclosed analytical shortcomings in the determination of Cd when using certain ICP/MS methods. Results were corrected by reanalyzes. The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project for the first time succeeded in performing a harmonized pan-European HBM project. All data raised have to be regarded as utmost reliable according to the highest international state of the art, since highly renowned laboratories functioned as reference laboratories. The procedure described here, that has shown its success, can be used as a blueprint for future transnational, multicentre HBM projects.
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27.
  • Stacey, Simon N, et al. (författare)
  • A germline variant in the TP53 polyadenylation signal confers cancer susceptibility.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1098-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify new risk variants for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, we performed a genome-wide association study of 16 million SNPs identified through whole-genome sequencing of 457 Icelanders. We imputed genotypes for 41,675 Illumina SNP chip-typed Icelanders and their relatives. In the discovery phase, the strongest signal came from rs78378222[C] (odds ratio (OR) = 2.36, P = 5.2 × 10(-17)), which has a frequency of 0.0192 in the Icelandic population. We then confirmed this association in non-Icelandic samples (OR = 1.75, P = 0.0060; overall OR = 2.16, P = 2.2 × 10(-20)). rs78378222 is in the 3' untranslated region of TP53 and changes the AATAAA polyadenylation signal to AATACA, resulting in impaired 3'-end processing of TP53 mRNA. Investigation of other tumor types identified associations of this SNP with prostate cancer (OR = 1.44, P = 2.4 × 10(-6)), glioma (OR = 2.35, P = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and colorectal adenoma (OR = 1.39, P = 1.6 × 10(-4)). However, we observed no effect for breast cancer, a common Li-Fraumeni syndrome tumor (OR = 1.06, P = 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.27).
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28.
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29.
  • Wu, Xifeng, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in the prostate stem cell antigen gene PSCA confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 41:9, s. 991-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a genome-wide association study on 969 bladder cancer cases and 957 controls from Texas. For fast-track validation, we evaluated 60 SNPs in three additional US populations and validated the top SNP in nine European populations. A missense variant (rs2294008) in the PSCA gene showed consistent association with bladder cancer in US and European populations. Combining all subjects (6,667 cases, 39,590 controls), the overall P-value was 2.14 x 10(-10) and the allelic odds ratio was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.10-1.20). rs2294008 alters the start codon and is predicted to cause truncation of nine amino acids from the N-terminal signal sequence of the primary PSCA translation product. In vitro reporter gene assay showed that the variant allele significantly reduced promoter activity. Resequencing of the PSCA genomic region showed that rs2294008 is the only common missense SNP in PSCA. Our data identify rs2294008 as a new bladder cancer susceptibility locus.
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