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Sökning: WFRF:(Sampson Joshua N)

  • Resultat 11-19 av 19
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11.
  • Machiela, Mitchell J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants Related to Longer Telomere Length are Associated with Increased Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 0302-2838. ; 72:5, s. 747-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings.Objective: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations.Design, setting, and participants: Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis.Results and limitations: Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR = 2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]: = 1.70-2.53, p < 0.0001). As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded two telomere length variants in linkage disequilibrium (R-2 > 0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.36-2.21, p < 0.0001). Exploratory analyses for individual histologic subtypes suggested comparable associations with the telomere length GRS for clear cell (N = 5573, OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.50-2.49, p < 0.0001), papillary (N = 573, OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.01-3.81, p = 0.046), and chromophobe RCC (N = 203, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 0.78-7.17, p = 0.13).Conclusions: Our investigation adds to the growing body of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk.Patient summary: Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.
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12.
  • Machiela, Mitchell J, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants Related to Longer Telomere Length are Associated with Increased Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 72:5, s. 747-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings.OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length.OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis.RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR=2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]:=1.70-2.53, p<0.0001). As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded two telomere length variants in linkage disequilibrium (R2>0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.36-2.21, p<0.0001). Exploratory analyses for individual histologic subtypes suggested comparable associations with the telomere length GRS for clear cell (N=5573, OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.50-2.49, p<0.0001), papillary (N=573, OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.01-3.81, p=0.046), and chromophobe RCC (N=203, OR=2.37, 95% CI=0.78-7.17, p=0.13).CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation adds to the growing body of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk.PATIENT SUMMARY: Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.
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13.
  • Scelo, Ghislaine, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for renal cell carcinoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P = 3.1 x 10(-10)), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P = 2.5 x 10(-8)), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P = 8.8 x 10(-9)), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P = 5.8 x 10(-9)), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P = 3.9 x 10(-8)), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P = 2.1 x 10(-10)) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P = 2.2 x 10(-24)). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.
14.
  • Scelo, Ghislaine, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for renal cell carcinoma.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P=3.1 × 10-10), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P=2.5 × 10-8), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P=8.8 × 10-9), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P=5.8 × 10-9), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P=3.9 × 10-8), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P=2.1 × 10-10) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P=2.2 × 10-24). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.
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15.
  • Berndt, Sonja I, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale fine mapping of the HNF1B locus and prostate cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 20:16, s. 3322-3329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.
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17.
  • Moore, Steven C., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Risk of 26 Types of Cancer in 1.44 Million Adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA Internal Medicine. - 2168-6106. ; 176:6, s. 816-825
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood.Objective: To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking.Design, Setting, and Participants: We pooled data from 12 prospective US and European cohorts with self-reported physical activity (baseline, 1987-2004). We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of 26 types of cancer. Leisure-time physical activity levels were modeled as cohort-specific percentiles on a continuous basis and cohort-specific results were synthesized by random-effects meta-analysis. Hazard ratios for high vs low levels of activity are based on a comparison of risk at the 90th vs 10th percentiles of activity. The data analysis was performed from January 1, 2014, to June 1, 2015.Exposures: Leisure-time physical activity of a moderate to vigorous intensity.Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident cancer during follow-up.Results: A total of 1.44 million participants (median [range] age, 59 [19-98] years; 57% female) and 186 932 cancers were included. High vs low levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with lower risks of 13 cancers: esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89), liver (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.98), lung (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.77), kidney (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.70-0.85), gastric cardia (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.95), endometrial (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92), myeloid leukemia (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.92), myeloma (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.95), colon (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91), head and neck (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93), rectal (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95), bladder (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.92), and breast (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.93). Body mass index adjustment modestly attenuated associations for several cancers, but 10 of 13 inverse associations remained statistically significant after this adjustment. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with higher risks of malignant melanoma (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.40) and prostate cancer (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.08). Associations were generally similar between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals. Smoking status modified the association for lung cancer but not other smoking-related cancers.Conclusions and Relevance: Leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risks of many cancer types. Health care professionals counseling inactive adults should emphasize that most of these associations were evident regardless of body size or smoking history, supporting broad generalizability of findings.
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18.
  • Wang, Haidong, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 384:9947, s. 957-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success.METHODS: We generated updated estimates of child mortality in early neonatal (age 0-6 days), late neonatal (7-28 days), postneonatal (29-364 days), childhood (1-4 years), and under-5 (0-4 years) age groups for 188 countries from 1970 to 2013, with more than 29 000 survey, census, vital registration, and sample registration datapoints. We used Gaussian process regression with adjustments for bias and non-sampling error to synthesise the data for under-5 mortality for each country, and a separate model to estimate mortality for more detailed age groups. We used explanatory mixed effects regression models to assess the association between under-5 mortality and income per person, maternal education, HIV child death rates, secular shifts, and other factors. To quantify the contribution of these different factors and birth numbers to the change in numbers of deaths in under-5 age groups from 1990 to 2013, we used Shapley decomposition. We used estimated rates of change between 2000 and 2013 to construct under-5 mortality rate scenarios out to 2030.FINDINGS: We estimated that 6·3 million (95% UI 6·0-6·6) children under-5 died in 2013, a 64% reduction from 17·6 million (17·1-18·1) in 1970. In 2013, child mortality rates ranged from 152·5 per 1000 livebirths (130·6-177·4) in Guinea-Bissau to 2·3 (1·8-2·9) per 1000 in Singapore. The annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2013 ranged from -6·8% to 0·1%. 99 of 188 countries, including 43 of 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, had faster decreases in child mortality during 2000-13 than during 1990-2000. In 2013, neonatal deaths accounted for 41·6% of under-5 deaths compared with 37·4% in 1990. Compared with 1990, in 2013, rising numbers of births, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, led to 1·4 million more child deaths, and rising income per person and maternal education led to 0·9 million and 2·2 million fewer deaths, respectively. Changes in secular trends led to 4·2 million fewer deaths. Unexplained factors accounted for only -1% of the change in child deaths. In 30 developing countries, decreases since 2000 have been faster than predicted attributable to income, education, and secular shift alone.INTERPRETATION: Only 27 developing countries are expected to achieve MDG 4. Decreases since 2000 in under-5 mortality rates are accelerating in many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The Millennium Declaration and increased development assistance for health might have been a factor in faster decreases in some developing countries. Without further accelerated progress, many countries in west and central Africa will still have high levels of under-5 mortality in 2030.
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19.
  • Yang, Xiaohong R., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple rare variants in high-risk pancreatic cancer-related genes may increase risk for pancreatic cancer in a subset of patients with and without germline CDKN2A mutations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - Springer. - 0340-6717. ; 135:11, s. 1241-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) is increased in melanoma-prone families but the causal relationship between germline CDKN2A mutations and PC risk is uncertain, suggesting the existence of non-CDKN2A factors. One genetic possibility involves patients having mutations in multiple high-risk PC-related genes; however, no systematic examination has yet been conducted. We used next-generation sequencing data to examine 24 putative PC-related genes in 43 PC patients with and 23 PC patients without germline CDKN2A mutations and 1001 controls. For each gene and the four pathways in which they occurred, we tested whether PC patients (overall or CDKN2A+ and CDKN2A− cases separately) had an increased number of rare nonsynonymous variants. Overall, we identified 35 missense variants in PC patients, 14 in CDKN2A+ and 21 in CDKN2A− PC cases. We found nominally significant associations for mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2) in all PC patients and for ATM, CPA1, and PMS2 in CDKN2A− PC patients. Further, nine CDKN2A+ and four CDKN2A− PC patients had rare potentially deleterious variants in multiple PC-related genes. Loss-of-function variants were only observed in CDKN2A− PC patients, with ATM having the most pathogenic variants. Also, ATM variants (n = 5) were only observed in CDKN2A− PC patients with a family history that included digestive system tumors. Our results suggest that a subset of PC patients may have increased risk because of germline mutations in multiple PC-related genes.
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