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Sökning: WFRF:(Schulze Thomas G)

  • Resultat 31-35 av 35
  • Föregående 123[4]
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31.
  • Altenburger, R., et al. (författare)
  • Future water quality monitoring: improving the balance between exposure and toxicity assessments of real-world pollutant mixtures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental Sciences Europe. - 2190-4715. ; 31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental water quality monitoring aims to provide the data required for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects from multiple chemical contamination arising from anthropogenic diffuse emissions and point sources. Here, we integrate the experience of the international EU-funded project SOLUTIONS to shift the focus of water monitoring from a few legacy chemicals to complex chemical mixtures, and to identify relevant drivers of toxic effects. Monitoring serves a range of purposes, from control of chemical and ecological status compliance to safeguarding specific water uses, such as drinking water abstraction. Various water sampling techniques, chemical target, suspect and non-target analyses as well as an array of in vitro, in vivo and in situ bioanalytical methods were advanced to improve monitoring of water contamination. Major improvements for broader applicability include tailored sampling techniques, screening and identification techniques for a broader and more diverse set of chemicals, higher detection sensitivity, standardized protocols for chemical, toxicological, and ecological assessments combined with systematic evidence evaluation techniques. No single method or combination of methods is able to meet all divergent monitoring purposes. Current monitoring approaches tend to emphasize either targeted exposure or effect detection. Here, we argue that, irrespective of the specific purpose, assessment of monitoring results would benefit substantially from obtaining and linking information on the occurrence of both chemicals and potentially adverse biological effects. In this paper, we specify the information required to: (1) identify relevant contaminants, (2) assess the impact of contamination in aquatic ecosystems, or (3) quantify cause-effect relationships between contaminants and adverse effects. Specific strategies to link chemical and bioanalytical information are outlined for each of these distinct goals. These strategies have been developed and explored using case studies in the Danube and Rhine river basins as well as for rivers of the Iberian Peninsula. Current water quality assessment suffers from biases resulting from differences in approaches and associated uncertainty analyses. While exposure approaches tend to ignore data gaps (i.e., missing contaminants), effect-based approaches penalize data gaps with increased uncertainty factors. This integrated work suggests systematic ways to deal with mixture exposures and combined effects in a more balanced way, and thus provides guidance for future tailored environmental monitoring.
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32.
  • Perley, Daniel A., et al. (författare)
  • The Zwicky Transient Facility Bright Transient Survey. II. A Public Statistical Sample for Exploring Supernova Demographics
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 904:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a public catalog of transients from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Bright Transient Survey, a magnitude-limited (m g or r filter) survey for extragalactic transients in the ZTF public stream. We introduce cuts on survey coverage, sky visibility around peak light, and other properties unconnected to the nature of the transient, and show that the resulting statistical sample is spectroscopically 97% complete at <18 mag, 93% complete at <18.5 mag, and 75% complete at <19 mag. We summarize the fundamental properties of this population, identifying distinct duration-luminosity correlations in a variety of supernova (SN) classes and associating the majority of fast optical transients with well-established spectroscopic SN types (primarily SN Ibn and II/IIb). We measure the Type Ia SN and core-collapse (CC) SN rates and luminosity functions, which show good consistency with recent work. About 7% of CC SNe explode in very low-luminosity galaxies (M-i > -16 mag), 10% in red-sequence galaxies, and 1% in massive ellipticals. We find no significant difference in the luminosity or color distributions between the host galaxies of SNe Type II and SNe Type Ib/c, suggesting that line-driven wind stripping does not play a major role in the loss of the hydrogen envelope from their progenitors. Future large-scale classification efforts with ZTF and other wide-area surveys will provide high-quality measurements of the rates, properties, and environments of all known types of optical transients and limits on the existence of theoretically predicted but as yet unobserved explosions.
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33.
  • Tsuchiya, Takafumi, et al. (författare)
  • Association of the calpain-10 gene with type 2 diabetes in Europeans: Results of pooled and meta-analyses
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. - : Elsevier. - 1096-7192. ; 89:1-2, s. 174-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted pooled and meta-analyses of the association of the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) polymorphisms SNP-43, Indel-19 and SNP-63 individually and as haplotypes with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 3237 patients and 2935 controls of European ancestry. In the pooled analyses, the common SNP-43*G allele was associated with modest but statistically significant increased risk of T2D (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11 (95% confidence interval (0), 1.02-1.20), P = 0.01). Two haplotype combinations were associated with increased risk of T2D) (1-2-1/1-2-1, OR = 1.20 (1.03-1.41), P = 0.02; and 1-1-2/1-2-1, OR = 1.26 (1.01-1.59), P = 0.04) and one with decreased risk (1-1-1/2-2-1, OR = 0.86 (0.75-0.99), P = 0.03). The meta-analysis also showed a significant effect of the 1-2-1/1-2-1 haplogenotype on risk (OR = 1.25 (1.05-1.50), P = 0.01). However, there was evidence for heterogeneity with respect to this effect (P = 0.06). The heterogeneity appeared to be due to data sets in which the cases were selected from samples used in linkage studies of T2D. Using only the population-based case-control samples removed the heterogeneity (P = 0.89) and strengthened the evidence for association with T2D) in both the pooled (SNP-43*G, OR = 1.19 (1.07-1.32), P = 0.001; 1-2-1/1-2-1 haplogenotype, OR = 1.46 (1.19-1.78), P = 0.0003; 1-1-2/1-2-1 haplogenotype, OR = 1.52 (1.12-2.06), P = 0.007; and 1-1-1/2-2-1 haplogenotype, OR = 0.83 (0.70-0.99), P = 0.03) and the meta-analysis (SNP-43*G, OR = 1.18 (1.05-1.32), P = 0.005; 1-2-1/1-2-1 haplogenotype, OR = 1.68 (1.33-2.11), P = 0.00001). The pooled and meta-analyses as well as the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype diversity studies suggest a role for genetic variation in CAPN10 affecting risk of T2D in Europeans. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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34.
  • Zheng, Ju-Sheng, et al. (författare)
  • Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes : EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1756-1833. ; 370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.Design: Prospective case-cohort study.Setting: Populations from eight European countries.Participants: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.Main outcome measure: Incident type 2 diabetes.Results: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis.Conclusions: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
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35.
  • Zheng, Ju Sheng, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Vitamin C and type 2 diabetes : Genome-wide association study and mendelian randomization analysis in European populations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 44:1, s. 98-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 ☓ 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.
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