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31.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Food sources of fat may clarify the inconsistent role of dietary fat intake for incidence of type 2 diabetes.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 101:5, s. 1065-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary fats could affect glucose metabolism and obesity development and, thereby, may have a crucial role in the cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicated that replacing saturated with unsaturated fats might be favorable, and plant foods might be a better choice than animal foods. Nevertheless, epidemiologic studies suggested that dairy foods are protective.
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32.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • High folate intake is associated with lower breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 86:2, s. 434-443
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiologic studies of associations between folate intake and breast cancer are inconclusive, but folate and other plant food nutrients appear protective in women at elevated risk. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between folate intake and the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer. Design: This prospective study included all women aged >= 50 y (n = 11699) from the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. The mean follow-up time was 9.5 y. We used a modified diet-history method to collect nutrient intake data. At the end of follow-up, 392 incident invasive breast cancer cases were verified. We used proportional hazard regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Compared with the lowest quintile, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was reduced in the highest quintile of dietary folate intake (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.90; Pfor trend = 0.02); total folate intake, including supplements (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.91; P for trend = 0.006); and dietary folate equivalents (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.97; P for trend = 0.01). Conclusion: A high folate intake was associated with a lower incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in this cohort.
33.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • High folate intake is associated with lower breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 86:2, s. 43-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of associations between folate intake and breast cancer are inconclusive, but folate and other plant food nutrients appear protective in women at elevated risk.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between folate intake and the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer.DESIGN: This prospective study included all women aged >or=50 y (n = 11699) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The mean follow-up time was 9.5 y. We used a modified diet-history method to collect nutrient intake data. At the end of follow-up, 392 incident invasive breast cancer cases were verified. We used proportional hazard regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs).RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quintile, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was reduced in the highest quintile of dietary folate intake (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02); total folate intake, including supplements (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.91; P for trend = 0.006); and dietary folate equivalents (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.97; P for trend = 0.01).CONCLUSION: A high folate intake was associated with a lower incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in this cohort.
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34.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • High intakes of protein and processed meat associate with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press. - 1475-2662. ; 109:6, s. 1143-1153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diets high in protein have shown positive effects on short-term weight reduction and glycaemic control. However, the understanding of how dietary macronutrient composition relates to long-term risk of type 2 diabetes is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine intakes of macronutrients, fibre and protein sources in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. In total, 27 140 individuals, aged 45-74 years, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, were included. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method, including registration of cooked meals. During 12 years of follow-up, 1709 incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified. High protein intake was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1·27 for highest compared with lowest quintile; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·49; P for trend = 0·01). When protein consumption increased by 5 % of energy at the expense of carbohydrates (HR 1·20; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·33) or fat (HR 1·21; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·33), increased diabetes risk was observed. Intakes in the highest quintiles of processed meat (HR 1·16; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·36; P for trend = 0·01) and eggs (HR 1·21; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·41; P for trend = 0·02) were associated with increased risk. Intake of fibre-rich bread and cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (HR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·98; P for trend = 0·004). In conclusion, results from the present large population-based prospective study indicate that high protein intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Replacing protein with carbohydrates may be favourable, especially if fibre-rich breads and cereals are chosen as carbohydrate sources.
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35.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Increased breast cancer risk at high plasma folate concentrations among women with the MTHFR 677T allele.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 90, s. 1380-1389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Folate is involved in DNA synthesis and methylation and may thereby influence carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVES: We examined plasma folate (P-folate) concentration in relation to genotypes of the folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR 677C<--T (rs1801133) and 1298A<--C (rs1801131)]. We also explored whether P-folate was associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer overall and in subgroups with genetic variants of the MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DESIGN: This nested case-control study included 313 cases (age 55-73 y at baseline) with invasive breast cancer and 626 control subjects, matched on age and blood-sample date, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. P-folate and MTHFR genotypes were determined for 310 cases and 611 controls. P-folate according to genotype was calculated by using analysis of variance. Odds ratios were obtained by using logistic regression. All tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: The variant 677T allele was associated with lower P-folate. In women with the 677T allele, a high P-folate concentration was associated with increased breast cancer risk (P for trend across P-folate tertiles = 0.03). Interaction was seen between the 677C<--T SNP and P-folate (P = 0.002). A positive association, which was seen between P-folate and breast cancer risk in 1298AA women (P = 0.01), was probably due to linkage between the 2 SNPs. Overall, and in women with other genotypes, no significant associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association of high P-folate concentration with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in carriers of the 677T allele. The findings underline the importance of genetic variation of MTHFR in the complex relation between folate and cancer.
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36.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Folate Concentrations Are Positively Associated with Risk of Estrogen Receptor {beta} Negative Breast Cancer in a Swedish Nested Case Control Study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 1541-6100. ; 140:9, s. 1661-1668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Folate's role in breast cancer development is controversial. Not only estrogen receptor (ER) alpha status, but also ERbeta status of tumors may have confounded results from previous epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine associations between plasma folate concentration and postmenopausal breast cancer defined by ER status. This nested case-control study, within the Malmö diet and cancer cohort, included 204 incident breast cancer cases with information on ERalpha and ERbeta status determined by immunochemistry on tissue micro-array sections. Plasma folate concentration was analyzed for the cases and 408 controls (matched on age and blood sample date). Odds ratios (OR) for ER-defined breast cancers in tertiles of plasma folate concentration were calculated with unconditional logistic regression. All tests were 2-sided. Women in the third tertile of plasma folate concentration (>12 nmol/L) had higher incidence of ERbeta- breast cancer than women in the first tertile (OR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.44-4.92; P-trend = 0.001). We did not observe significant associations between plasma folate concentration and other breast cancer subgroups defined by ER status. We observed a difference between risks for ERbeta+ and ERbeta- cancer (P-heterogeneity = 0.003). Our findings, which indicate a positive association between plasma folate and ERbeta- breast cancer, highlight the importance of taking ERbeta status into consideration in studies of folate and breast cancer. The study contributes knowledge concerning folate's multifaceted role in cancer development. If replicated in other populations, the observations may have implications for public health, particularly regarding folic acid fortification.
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37.
  • Ericson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Sex-specific interactions between the IRS1 polymorphism and intakes of carbohydrates and fat on incident type 2 diabetes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The minor T allele of rs2943641 near the gene encoding for insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adiposity in genome-wide association studies. Dietary intake can influence the regulation of IRS1, and studies have indicated sex-specific associations between IRS1 and adiposity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the interaction between IRS1 rs2943641 and macronutrient intakes on incident T2D and percentage body fat in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. DESIGN: The study included 15,227 women and 9614 men aged 45-74 y without prevalent diabetes. Dietary data were collected with a modified diet history method. During 12 y follow-up, 1567 incident T2D cases were identified. RESULTS: The T allele was associated with lower incidence of T2D (P-trend = 0.003) and, in men, with higher percentage body fat (P-trend = 0.00002). We observed 3-way interactions between sex, rs2943641, and carbohydrate intake (P = 0.01) as well as between sex, rs2943641, and fat intake (P = 0.01) on incident T2D. Among women, the T allele was associated with decreased risk only in the lower tertiles of carbohydrate intake (P-trend = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.01). In contrast, among men, the T allele was associated with decreased risk in the lowest tertile of fat intake (P-trend = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.02). No interaction was observed between macronutrient intakes and rs2943641 on percentage body fat. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that IRS1 rs2943641 interacts with carbohydrate and fat intakes on incident T2D in a sex-specific fashion. A protective association between the rs2943641 T allele and T2D was restricted to women with low carbohydrate intake and to men with low fat intake.
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38.
  • Eussen, Simone JPM, et al. (författare)
  • North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press. - 1475-2662. ; 110:2, s. 363-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10.4 nmol/l; women, 10.7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B-2 concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22.2 nmol/l; women, 26.0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P-trend < 0.001). Vitamin B-6 concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77.3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70.4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P-trend < 0.001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle.
39.
  • Fall, Tove, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings: We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age-and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39) and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1-1.4; all p<0.05). For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all p<0.05). The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational estimate (p = 0.001). Conclusions: We provide novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and heart failure as well as between adiposity and increased liver enzymes.
40.
  • Freisling, Heinz, et al. (författare)
  • Main nutrient patterns are associated with prospective weight change in adults from 10 European countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207. ; 55:6, s. 2093-2104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults. Methods: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25–70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders. Results: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (−22 g/year; 95 % CI −33 to −10) and women (−18 g/year; 95 % CI −26 to −11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant. Conclusions: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.
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