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Sökning: WFRF:(Stampfer Meir J)

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  • Föregående 12345[6]7Nästa
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  • Holmberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Season of diagnosis and prognosis in breast and prostate cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 20:5, s. 633-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with breast or prostate cancer diagnosed during the summer season have been observed to have better survival. The extent to which this is due to biological and/or health care system related factors is unclear. METHODS: Using the Swedish Cancer Register and clinical databases, we analyzed overall survival by month of diagnosis among the incident cases of breast (n = 89,630) cancer and prostate (n = 72,375) cancer diagnosed from 1960 to 2004. We retrieved data on tumor stage from 1976 for breast cancer and 1997 for prostate cancer. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative risk of survival by the season of diagnosis. RESULTS: There was a higher hazard ratio of death in men and women diagnosed with cancer in the summer with a relative hazard of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.15-1.25) for July for prostate cancer and 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.19) for August for breast cancer when compared to being diagnosed in January. This difference coincided with a lower mean number of cases diagnosed per day, and a higher proportion of advanced cases diagnosed in the summer. This pattern of presentation was stronger in the later years. CONCLUSION: The difference in stage distribution explains the seasonal variation in prognosis seen in this study. The variation may be because of structure of the health care system and a strong tradition of vacationing from mid June to mid August. Thus, the health care infrastructure and the late presentation of symptomatic disease may influence cancer survival studied by season of diagnosis substantially.
  • Meyer, Mara S., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in RNASEL associated with prostate cancer risk and progression
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 31:9, s. 1597-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variation in genes contributing to the host immune response may mediate the relationship between inflammation and prostate carcinogenesis. RNASEL at chromosome 1q25 encodes ribonuclease L, part of the interferon-mediated immune response to viral infection. We therefore investigated the association between variation in RNASEL and prostate cancer risk and progression in a study of 1286 cases and 1264 controls nested within the prospective Physicians' Health Study. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected using the web-based 'Tagger' in the HapMap CEPH panel (Utah residents of Northern and Western European Ancestry). Unconditional logistic regression models assessed the relationship between each SNP and incident advanced stage (T(3)/T(4), T(0)-T(4)/M(1) and lethal disease) and high Gleason grade (>/=7) prostate cancer. Further analyses were stratified by calendar year of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models examined the relationship between genotype and prostate cancer-specific survival. We also explored associations between genotype and serum inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 using linear regression. Individuals homozygous for the variant allele of rs12757998 had an increased risk of prostate cancer [AA versus GG; odds ratio (OR): 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.25), and more specifically, high-grade tumors (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25-2.89). The same genotype was associated with increased CRP (P = 0.02) and IL-6 (P = 0.05) levels. Missense mutations R462Q and D541E were associated with an increased risk of advanced stage disease only in the pre-prostate-specific antigen era. There were no significant associations with survival. The results of this study support a link between RNASEL and prostate cancer and suggest that the association may be mediated through inflammation. These novel findings warrant replication in future studies.
  • Mucci, Lorelei A., et al. (författare)
  • Nine-gene molecular signature is not associated with prostate cancer death in a watchful waiting cohort
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - Baltimore : Waverly Press. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 17:1, s. 249-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tumor molecular markers hold promise to distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer and to guide treatment choices. A previous study identified a nine-gene molecular signature in tumors associated with prostate-specific antigen relapse after prostatectomy. We examined this molecular model in relation to prostate cancer death among 172 men with initially localized disease. We quantified protein expression of the nine genes in tumors to classify progression risk. Accounting for clinical prognostic factors, the nine-gene model did not provide discrimination to predict lethal and indolent prostate cancer.
  • Mucci, Lorelei A., et al. (författare)
  • Testing a multigene signature of prostate cancer death in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - Philadelphia : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 17:7, s. 1682-1688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, most men die with and not from their disease, underscoring the urgency to distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer. We tested the prognostic value of a previously identified multigene signature of prostate cancer progression to predict cancer-specific death. The Örebro Watchful Waiting Cohort included 172 men with localized prostate cancer of whom 40 died of prostate cancer. We quantified protein expression of the markers in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and stratified the cohort by quintiles according to risk classification. We accounted for clinical variables (age, Gleason, nuclear grade, and tumor volume) using Cox regression and calculated receiver operator curves to compare discriminatory ability. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer death increased with increasing risk classification by the multigene model, with a 16-fold greater risk comparing highest-risk versus lowest-risk strata, and predicted outcome independent of clinical factors (P = 0.002). The best discrimination came from combining information from the multigene markers and clinical data, which perfectly classified the lowest-risk stratum where no one developed lethal disease; using the two lowest-risk groups as reference, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 11.3 (4.0-32.8) for the highest-risk group and difference in mortality at 15 years was 60% (50-70%). The combined model provided greater discriminatory ability (area under the curve = 0.78) than the clinical model alone (area under the curve = 0.71; P = 0.04). Molecular tumor markers can add to clinical variables to help distinguish lethal and indolent prostate cancer and hold promise to guide treatment decisions. 
  • Penney, Kathryn L., et al. (författare)
  • mRNA Expression Signature of Gleason Grade Predicts Lethal Prostate Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 29:17, s. 2391-2396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Prostate-specific antigen screening has led to enormous overtreatment of prostate cancer because of the inability to distinguish potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. We reasoned that by identifying an mRNA signature of Gleason grade, the best predictor of prognosis, we could improve prediction of lethal disease among men with moderate Gleason 7 tumors, the most common grade, and the most indeterminate in terms of prognosis. Patients and Methods Using the complementary DNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation assay, we measured the mRNA expression of 6,100 genes in prostate tumor tissue in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort (n = 358) and Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 109). We developed an mRNA signature of Gleason grade comparing individuals with Gleason <= 6 to those with Gleason >= 8 tumors and applied the model among patients with Gleason 7 to discriminate lethal cases. Results We built a 157-gene signature using the Swedish data that predicted Gleason with low misclassification (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91); when this signature was tested in the PHS, the discriminatory ability remained high (AUC = 0.94). In men with Gleason 7 tumors, who were excluded from the model building, the signature significantly improved the prediction of lethal disease beyond knowing whether the Gleason score was 4 + 3 or 3 + 4 (P = .006). Conclusion Our expression signature and the genes identified may improve our understanding of the de-differentiation process of prostate tumors. Additionally, the signature may have clinical applications among men with Gleason 7, by further estimating their risk of lethal prostate cancer and thereby guiding therapy decisions to improve outcomes and reduce overtreatment. J Clin Oncol 29:2391-2396.
  • Rosner, Sarah A., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee consumption and risk of myocardial infarction among older Swedish women
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: ; 165:3, s. 288-293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but results have been inconsistent. Case-control studies generally suggest a harmful effect of coffee drinking, whereas cohort studies have mostly shown no association. Recent studies found that coffee may lower the risk of diabetes, a major coronary risk factor. The authors prospectively examined the effect of coffee consumption on MI risk in 32,650 older Swedish women, aged 40-74 years, participating in the Swedish Mammography Cohort; 459 cases of MI developed during 165,896 person-years of follow-up from 1997 to 2002. After adjustment for age, coronary heart disease risk factors, and dietary variables, the relative risk of MI associated with drinking >= 5 cups/week versus 0-4 cups/week was 0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43, 1.07). The authors observed a nonsignificant trend toward lower risk with higher consumption levels. Compared with that for 0-4 cups/week, the relative risks of MI were 0.84 ( 95% CI: 0.51, 1.38) for 5-7 cups/week, 0.65 ( 95% CI: 0.41, 1.03) for 2-3 cups/day, 0.64 ( 95% CI: 0.39, 1.04) for 4-5 cups/day, and 0.65 ( 95% CI: 0.37, 1.12) for >= 6 cups/day (p-trend = 0.07). Contrary to previous case-control studies, the authors concluded that coffee consumption does not increase MI risk. Coffee consumption of >= 5 cups/week was nonsignificantly inversely associated with MI risk among older Swedish women.
  • Shui, Irene M, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in the toll-like receptor 4 and prostate cancer incidence and mortality
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0270-4137 .- 1097-0045. ; 72:2, s. 209-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Common genetic variants in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which is involved in inflammation and immune response pathways, may be important for prostate cancer.METHODS: In a large nested case-control study of prostate cancer in the Physicians' Health Study (1982-2004), 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped to capture common variation within the TLR4 gene as well as 5 kb up and downstream. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess associations of these SNPs with total prostate cancer incidence, and with prostate cancers defined as advanced stage/lethal (T3/T4, M1/N1(T1-T4), lethal) or high Gleason grade (7 (4 + 3) or greater). Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to assess progression to metastases and death among prostate cancer cases.RESULTS: The study included 1,267 controls and 1,286 incident prostate cancer cases, including 248 advanced stage/lethal and 306 high grade cases. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, 183 men died of prostate cancer or developed distant metastases. No statistically significant associations between the TLR4 SNPs were found for total prostate cancer incidence, including SNPs for which an association was reported in other published studies. Additionally, there were no significant associations with TLR4 SNPS and the incidence of advanced stage/lethal, or high grade cancers; nor was there evidence among prostate cancer cases for associations of TLR4 SNPs with progression to prostate cancer specific mortality or bony metastases.CONCLUSIONS: Results from this prospective nested case-control study suggest that genetic variation across TLR4 alone is not strongly associated with prostate cancer risk or mortality.
  • Sigurdardottir, Lara G., et al. (författare)
  • Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Rhythms. - Thousand Oaks, USA : Sage Publications. - 0748-7304 .- 1552-4531. ; 31:5, s. 461-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p < 0.001). Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin did not differ significantly by presence of cysts or calcification. By using an innovative method for pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies.
  • Sigurdardottir, Lara G., et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disruption among older men and risk of prostate cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 22:5, s. 872-879
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although positive associations have consistently been reported between sleep disruption and breast cancer, less is known about its potential role in prostate cancer.Methods: Within the prospective AGES-Reykjavik cohort study, we followed 2,102 men recruited in 20022006 until the end of 2009. Participants answered questions on sleep disruption. Information on the occurrence of prostate cancer was obtained through record linkages across the Icelandic Cancer Registry. We used Cox regression models with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate HRs of prostate cancer by symptoms of sleep disruption.Results: During follow-up, 135 men (6.4%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Compared with men without sleep disruption, those with problems falling and staying asleep were at significantly increased risk of prostate cancer [HR, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2-3.7)], respectively, with increasing sleep disruption severity. When restricted to advanced prostate cancer (>= stage T3 or lethal disease), these associations became even stronger [HR 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7-6.2) and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.1-9.7)]. The results did not change after excluding from the analyses men who woke up during the night, indicative of nocturia, suggesting limited risk of reverse association.Conclusions: Our data suggest that certain aspects of sleep disruption may confer an increased risk of prostate cancer and call for additional, larger studies with longer follow-up times.Impact: Prostate cancer is one of the leading public health concerns in men; if confirmed in future studies, the association between sleep disruption and prostate cancer risk may open new avenues for prevention.
  • Epstein, Mara M, et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal variation in expression of markers in the vitamin D pathway in prostate tissue
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - : Springer. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 23:8, s. 1359-1366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest variation in genes along the vitamin D pathway, as well as vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein levels, may be associated with prostate cancer. As serum vitamin D levels vary by season, we sought to determine whether the expression of genes on the vitamin D pathway, assessed in prostate tumor tissue, do the same.METHODS: Our study incorporates mRNA expression data from 362 men in the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort, diagnosed between 1977 and 1999, and 106 men enrolled in the US Physicians' Health Study (PHS) diagnosed between 1983 and 2004. We also assayed for VDR protein expression among 832 men in the PHS and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Season was characterized by date of initial tissue specimen collection categorically and by average monthly ultraviolet radiation levels. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine variation in the expression levels of six genes on the vitamin D pathway-VDR, GC, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, RXRα, CYP24A1-and VDR protein by season, adjusted for age at diagnosis and Gleason grade. Variation was also examined separately among lethal and nonlethal cases.RESULTS: Tumor expression levels of the six genes did not vary significantly by season of tissue collection. No consistent patterns emerged from subgroup analyses by lethal versus nonlethal cases.CONCLUSIONS: Unlike circulating levels of 25(OH) vitamin D, expression levels of genes on the vitamin D pathway and VDR protein did not vary overall by season of tissue collection. Epidemiological analyses of vitamin D gene expression may not be biased by seasonality.
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