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Sökning: WFRF:(Stefansson Kari) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E, et al. (författare)
  • A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 452:7187, s. 9-638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death, causing about 5 million premature deaths worldwide each year(1,2). Evidence for genetic influence on smoking behaviour and nicotine dependence (ND)(3-8) has prompted a search for susceptibility genes. Furthermore, assessing the impact of sequence variants on smoking-related diseases is important to public health(9,10). Smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer (LC)(11-14) and is one of the main risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD)(15-17). Here we identify a common variant in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24 with an effect on smoking quantity, ND and the risk of two smoking- related diseases in populations of European descent. The variant has an effect on the number of cigarettes smoked per day in our sample of smokers. The same variant was associated with ND in a previous genomewide association study that used low- quantity smokers as controls(18,19), and with a similar approach we observe a highly significant association with ND. A comparison of cases of LC and PAD with population controls each showed that the variant confers risk of LC and PAD. The findings provide a case study of a gene - environment interaction(20), highlighting the role of nicotine addiction in the pathology of other serious diseases.
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2.
  • Amundadottir, Laufey T., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant associated with prostate cancer in European and African populations
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 38:6, s. 652-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is important. Here we report such a variant on chromosome 8q24, a region initially identified through a study of Icelandic families. Allele -8 of the microsatellite DG8S737 was associated with prostate cancer in three case-control series of European ancestry from Iceland, Sweden and the US. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the allele is 1.62 (P = 2.7 x 10(-11)). About 19% of affected men and 13% of the general population carry at least one copy, yielding a population attributable risk (PAR) of approximately 8%. The association was also replicated in an African American case-control group with a similar OR, in which 41% of affected individuals and 30% of the population are carriers. This leads to a greater estimated PAR (16%) that may contribute to higher incidence of prostate cancer in African American men than in men of European ancestry.
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3.
  • Gudbjartsson, Daniel F., et al. (författare)
  • Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 41:3, s. 342-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blood of 9,392 Icelanders. The most significant SNPs were studied further in 12,118 Europeans and 5,212 East Asians. SNPs at 2q12 (rs1420101), 2q13 (rs12619285), 3q21 (rs4857855), 5q31 (rs4143832) and 12q24 (rs3184504) reached genome-wide significance (P = 5.3 x 10(-14), 5.4 x 10(-10), 8.6 x 10(-17), 1.2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated with atopic asthma (P = 4.2 x 10(-6), 2.2 x 10(-5) and 2.4 x 10(-4), respectively). We also found that a nonsynonymous SNP at 12q24, in SH2B3, associated significantly (P = 8.6 x 10(-8)) with myocardial infarction in six different populations (6,650 cases and 40,621 controls).
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4.
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5.
  • Helgadottir, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The same sequence variant on 9p21 associates with myocardial infarction, abdominal aortic aneurysm and intracranial aneurysm
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:2, s. 217-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, two common sequence variants on 9p21, tagged by rs10757278-G and rs10811661-T, were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)(1-4) and type 2 diabetes (T2D)(5-7), respectively. We proceeded to further investigate the contributions of these variants to arterial diseases and T2D. Here we report that rs10757278-G is associated with, in addition to CAD, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA; odds ratio (OR) 1.31, P = 1.2 x 10(-12)) and intracranial aneurysm (OR = 1.29, P = 2.5 x 10(-6)), but not with T2D. This variant is the first to be described that affects the risk of AAA and intracranial aneurysm in many populations. The association of rs10811661-T to T2D replicates in our samples, but the variant does not associate with any of the five arterial diseases examined. These findings extend our insight into the role of the sequence variant tagged by rs10757278-G and show that it is not confined to atherosclerotic diseases.
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6.
  • Thorleifsson, Gudmar, et al. (författare)
  • Common sequence variants in the LOXL1 gene confer susceptibility to exfoliation glaucoma
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 317:5843, s. 1397-1400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. A genome-wide search yielded multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24.1 region associated with glaucoma. Further investigation revealed that the association is confined to exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). Two nonsynonymous SNPs in exon 1 of the gene LOXL1 explain the association, and the data suggest that they confer risk of XFG mainly through exfoliation syndrome (XFS). About 25% of the general population is homozygous for the highest-risk haplotype, and their risk of suffering from XFG is more than 100 times that of individuals carrying only low-risk haplotypes. The population-attributable risk is more than 99%. The product of LOXL1 catalyzes the formation of elastin fibers found to be a major component of the lesions in XFG.
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7.
  • Zeggini, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 40:5, s. 638-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)(1-11). Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to identify variants with modest effects, we carried out meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans comprising 10,128 individuals of European descent and similar to 2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed), followed by replication testing in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. We detected at least six previously unknown loci with robust evidence for association, including the JAZF1 (P=5.0 x 10(-14)), CDC123-CAMK1D (P=1.2 x 10(-10)), TSPAN8-LGR5 (P=1.1 x 10(-9)), THADA (P=1.1 x 10(-9)), ADAMTS9 (P=1.2 x 10(-8)) and NOTCH2 (P=4.1 x 10(-8)) gene regions. Our results illustrate the value of large discovery and follow-up samples for gaining further insights into the inherited basis of T2D.
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8.
  • Choquet, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • The T-381C SNP in BNP gene may be modestly associated with type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis in 49 279 subjects
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 18:13, s. 2495-2501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A recent study reported an association between the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter T-381C polymorphism (rs198389) and protection against type 2 diabetes (T2D). As replication in several studies is mandatory to confirm genetic results, we analyzed the T-381C polymorphism in seven independent case-control cohorts and in 291 T2D-enriched pedigrees totalling 39 557 subjects of European origin. A meta-analysis of the seven case-control studies (n = 39 040) showed a nominal protective effect [odds ratio (OR) = 0.86 (0.79-0.94), P = 0.0006] of the CC genotype on T2D risk, consistent with the previous study. By combining all available data (n = 49 279), we further confirmed a modest contribution of the BNP T-381C polymorphism for protection against T2D [OR = 0.86 (0.80-0.92), P = 1.4 x 10(-5)]. Potential confounders such as gender, age, obesity status or family history were tested in 4335 T2D and 4179 normoglycemic subjects and they had no influence on T2D risk. This study provides further evidence of a modest contribution of the BNP T-381C polymorphism in protection against T2D and illustrates the difficulty of unambiguously proving modest-sized associations even with large sample sizes.
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9.
  • Lindgren, Cecilia M, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 5:6, s. e1000508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11)) and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9x10(-9)). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6x10(-8)). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.
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10.
  • Lyon, Helen N., et al. (författare)
  • The association of a SNP upstream of INSIG2 with body mass index is reproduced in several but not all cohorts
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 3:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605, was recently found to be associated with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) by Herbert and colleagues. The association between increased BMI and homozygosity for the minor allele was first observed in data from a genome-wide association scan of 86,604 SNPs in 923 related individuals from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. The association was reproduced in four additional cohorts, but was not seen in a fifth cohort. To further assess the general reproducibility of this association, we genotyped rs7566605 in nine large cohorts from eight populations across multiple ethnicities (total n = 16,969). We tested this variant for association with BMI in each sample under a recessive model using family-based, population-based, and case-control designs. We observed a significant (p < 0.05) association in five cohorts but saw no association in three other cohorts. There was variability in the strength of association evidence across examination cycles in longitudinal data from unrelated individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. A combined analysis revealed significant independent validation of this association in both unrelated (p = 0.046) and family-based (p = 0.004) samples. The estimated risk conferred by this allele is small, and could easily be masked by small sample size, population stratification, or other confounders. These validation studies suggest that the original association is less likely to be spurious, but the failure to observe an association in every data set suggests that the effect of SNP rs7566605 on BMI may be heterogeneous across population samples.
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