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51.
  • Cirulli, Elizabeth T., et al. (författare)
  • A Missense Variant in PTPN22 is a Risk Factor for Drug-induced Liver Injury
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 156:6, s. 1707-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed genetic analyses of a multiethnic cohort of patients with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) to identify variants associated with susceptibility.METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study of 2048 individuals with DILI (cases) and 12,429 individuals without (controls). Our analysis included subjects of European (1806 cases and 10,397 controls), African American (133 cases and 1,314 controls), and Hispanic (109 cases and 718 controls) ancestry. We analyzed DNA from 113 Icelandic cases and 239,304 controls to validate our findings.RESULTS: We associated idiosyncratic DILI with rs2476601, a nonsynonymous polymorphism that encodes a substitution of tryptophan with arginine in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 22 gene (PTPN22) (odds ratio [OR] 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.62; P = 1.2 x 10(-9) and replicated the finding in the validation set (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.09-1.99; P =.01). The minor allele frequency showed the same effect size (OR > 1) among ethnic groups. The strongest association was with amoxicillin and clavulanate-associated DILI in persons of European ancestry (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.32-1.98; P = 4.0 x 10(-6); allele frequency = 13.3%), but the polymorphism was associated with DILI of other causes (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.21-1.56; P = 1.5 x 10(-6); allele frequency = 11.5%). Among amoxicillin-and clavulanate-associated cases of European ancestry, rs2476601 doubled the risk for DILI among those with the HLA risk alleles A* 02: 01 and DRB1* 15: 01.CONCLUSIONS: In a genome-wide association study, we identified rs2476601 in PTPN22 as a non-HLA variant that associates with risk of liver injury caused by multiple drugs and validated our finding in a separate cohort. This variant has been associated with increased risk of autoimmune diseases, providing support for the concept that alterations in immune regulation contribute to idiosyncratic DILI.
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52.
  • Demenais, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.
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53.
  • den Hoed, Marcel, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:6, s. 621-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
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54.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:11, s. 1345-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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55.
  • Dupuis, Josée, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:2, s. 32-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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56.
  • Elks, Cathy E, et al. (författare)
  • Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 42:12, s. 1077-U73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify loci for age at menarche, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies in 87,802 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,731 women. In addition to the known loci at LIN28B (P = 5.4 × 10⁻⁶⁰) and 9q31.2 (P = 2.2 × 10⁻³³), we identified 30 new menarche loci (all P < 5 × 10⁻⁸) and found suggestive evidence for a further 10 loci (P < 1.9 × 10⁻⁶). The new loci included four previously associated with body mass index (in or near FTO, SEC16B, TRA2B and TMEM18), three in or near other genes implicated in energy homeostasis (BSX, CRTC1 and MCHR2) and three in or near genes implicated in hormonal regulation (INHBA, PCSK2 and RXRG). Ingenuity and gene-set enrichment pathway analyses identified coenzyme A and fatty acid biosynthesis as biological processes related to menarche timing.
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57.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 x 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 x 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
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58.
  • Evangelou, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies novel variants associated with osteoarthritis of the hip
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - British Medical Association. - 1468-2060. ; 73:12, s. 2130-2136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis with a clear genetic component. To identify novel loci associated with hip OA we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on European subjects. Methods We performed a two-stage meta-analysis on more than 78 000 participants. In stage 1, we synthesised data from eight GWAS whereas data from 10 centres were used for 'in silico' or 'de novo' replication. Besides the main analysis, a stratified by sex analysis was performed to detect possible sex-specific signals. Meta-analysis was performed using inverse-variance fixed effects models. A random effects approach was also used. Results We accumulated 11 277 cases of radiographic and symptomatic hip OA. We prioritised eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) for follow-up in the discovery stage (4349 OA cases); five from the combined analysis, two male specific and one female specific. One locus, at 20q13, represented by rs6094710 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 4%) near the NCOA3 (nuclear receptor coactivator 3) gene, reached genome-wide significance level with p=7.9x10(-9) and OR=1.28 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.39) in the combined analysis of discovery (p= 5.6x10(-8)) and follow-up studies (p=7.3x10(-4)). We showed that this gene is expressed in articular cartilage and its expression was significantly reduced in OA-affected cartilage. Moreover, two loci remained suggestive associated; rs5009270 at 7q31 (MAF 30%, p=9.9x10(-7), OR=1.10) and rs3757837 at 7p13 (MAF 6%, p=2.2x10(-6), OR=1.27 in male specific analysis). Conclusions Novel genetic loci for hip OA were found in this meta-analysis of GWAS.
59.
  • Evangelou, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies confirms a susceptibility locus for knee osteoarthritis on chromosome 7q22
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - British Medical Association. - 1468-2060. ; 70:2, s. 349-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and accounts for substantial morbidity and disability, particularly in older people. It is characterised by changes in joint structure, including degeneration of the articular cartilage, and its aetiology is multifactorial with a strong postulated genetic component. Methods A meta-analysis was performed of four genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 2371 cases of knee OA and 35 909 controls in Caucasian populations. Replication of the top hits was attempted with data from 10 additional replication datasets. Results With a cumulative sample size of 6709 cases and 44 439 controls, one genome-wide significant locus was identified on chromosome 7q22 for knee OA (rs4730250, p = 9.2 x 10(-9)), thereby confirming its role as a susceptibility locus for OA. Conclusion The associated signal is located within a large (500 kb) linkage disequilibrium block that contains six genes: PRKAR2B (protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta), HPB1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1), COG5 (component of oligomeric golgi complex 5), GPR22 (G protein-coupled receptor 22), DUS4L (dihydrouridine synthase 4-like) and BCAP29 (B cell receptor-associated protein 29). Gene expression analyses of the (six) genes in primary cells derived from different joint tissues confirmed expression of all the genes in the joint environment.
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60.
  • Fehringer, Gordon, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Analysis of Lung, Ovary, Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Reveals Novel Pleiotropic Associations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer research. - 1538-7445. ; 76:17, s. 5103-5114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations can uncover common pathways influencing multiple cancers. We took a two-staged approach to conduct genome-wide association studies for lung, ovary, breast, prostate and colorectal cancer from the GAME-ON/GECCO Network (61,851 cases, 61,820 controls) to identify pleiotropic loci. Findings were replicated in independent association studies (55,789 cases, 330,490 controls). We identified a novel pleiotropic association at 1q22 involving breast and lung squamous cell carcinoma, with eQTL analysis showing an association with ADAM15/THBS3 gene expression in lung. We also identified a known breast cancer locus CASP8/ALS2CR12 associated with prostate cancer, a known cancer locus at CDKN2B-AS1 with different variants associated with lung adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer and confirmed the associations of a breast BRCA2 locus with lung and serous ovarian cancer. This is the largest study to date examining pleiotropy across multiple cancer-associated loci, identifying common mechanisms of cancer development and progression.
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