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  • Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice, et al. (författare)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Evolution. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0014-3820 .- 1558-5646. ; 65:9, s. 2631-2640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The question of how diverging populations become separate species by restraining gene flow is a central issue in evolutionary biology. Assortative mating might emerge early during adaptive divergence, but the role of other types of reproductive barriers such as migration modification have recently received increased attention. We demonstrate that two recently diverged ecotypes of a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus) have rapidly developed premating isolation, and this isolation barrier has emerged independently and in parallel in two south Swedish lakes. This is consistent with ecological speciation theory, which predicts that reproductive isolation arises as a byproduct of ecological divergence. We also find that in one of these lakes, habitat choice acts as the main barrier to gene flow. These observations and experimental results suggest that migration modification might be as important as assortative mating in the early stages of ecological speciation. Simulations suggest that the joint action of these two isolating barriers is likely to greatly facilitate adaptive divergence, compared to if each barrier was acting alone.
  • Fahlström, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Distortion Analysis in Laser Welding of Ultra High Strength Steel
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014. - 9789198097412 ; , s. 1-9
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to increased demands on reduced weight in automotive industries, the use of ultra high strength steels (UHSS) has increased. When laser welding UHSS sheets, heating and cooling of the material will cause geometrical distortions and may cause low joint quality. 700 mm long U-beam structures of 1 mm thick boron steel simulating structural pillars in body-in-white constructions have been welded along the flanges with different welding speeds to investigate distortions and weld quality. The results show that final distortions appear in the range of 0-8 mm. FE simulation methods have also been presented which generally predict the distribution of welding distortions.
  • Grape, Erik Svensson, et al. (författare)
  • A Robust and Biocompatible Bismuth Ellagate MOF Synthesized Under Green Ambient Conditions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - 1520-5126 .- 0002-7863. ; 142:39, s. 16795-16804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first bioinspired microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) synthesized using ellagic acid, a common natural antioxidant and polyphenol building unit, is presented. Bi2O(H2O)2(C14H2O8)·nH2O (SU-101) was inspired by bismuth phenolate metallodrugs, and could be synthesized entirely from nonhazardous or edible reagents under ambient aqueous conditions, enabling simple scale-up. Reagent-grade and affordable dietary supplement-grade ellagic acid was sourced from tree bark and pomegranate hulls, respectively. Biocompatibility and colloidal stability were confirmed by in vitro assays. The material exhibits remarkable chemical stability for a bioinspired MOF (pH = 2-14, hydrothermal conditions, heated organic solvents, biological media, SO2 and H2S), attributed to the strongly chelating phenolates. A total H2S uptake of 15.95 mmol g-1 was recorded, representing one of the highest H2S capacities for a MOF, where polysulfides are formed inside the pores of the material. Phenolic phytochemicals remain largely unexplored as linkers for MOF synthesis, opening new avenues to design stable, eco-friendly, scalable, and low-cost MOFs for diverse applications, including drug delivery.
  • Grape, Erik Svensson, et al. (författare)
  • Breathing Metal-Organic Framework Based on Flexible Inorganic Building Units
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Crystal Growth & Design. - 1528-7483 .- 1528-7505. ; 20:1, s. 320-329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Five novel bismuth carboxylate coordination polymers were synthesized from biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BPT) and [1,1′:4′,1′′]terphenyl-3,3′′,5,5′′-tetracarboxylic acid (H4TPTC). One of the phases, [Bi(BPT)]·2MeOH (denoted SU-100, as synthesized), is the first example, to the best of our knowledge, of a reversibly flexible bismuth-based metal–organic framework. The material exhibits continuous changes to its unit cell parameters and pore shape depending on the solvent it is immersed in and the dryness of the sample. Typically, in breathing carboxylate-based MOFs, flexibility occurs through tilting of the organic linkers without significantly altering the coordination environment around the cation. In contrast to this, the continuous breathing mechanism in SU-100 involves significant changes to bond angles within the Bi2O12 inorganic building unit (IBU). The flexibility of the IBU of SU-100 reflects the nondiscrete coordination geometry of the bismuth cation. A disproportionate increase in the solvent accessible void volume was observed when compared to the expansion of the unit cell volume of SU-100. Additionally, activated SU-100 (SU-100-HT) exhibits a large increase in unit cell volume, yet has the smallest void volume of all the studied samples.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Fracture incidence in GH-deficient patients on complete hormone replacement including GH
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681 .- 0884-0431. ; 22:12, s. 1842-1850
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fracture risk in GHD patients is not definitely established. Studying fracture incidence in 832 patients on GH therapy and 2581 matched population controls, we recorded a doubled fracture risk in CO GHD women, but a significantly lower fracture risk in AO GHD men. Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture incidence in patients with confirmed growth hormone deficiency (GHD) on replacement therapy (including growth hormone [GH]) compared with population controls, while also taking potential Confounders and effect modifiers into account. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred thirty-two patients with GHD and 2581 matched population controls answered a questionnaire about fractures and other background information. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% CI for first fracture were estimated. The median time on GH therapy for childhood onset (CO) GHD men and women was 15 and 12 yr, respectively, and 6 and 5 yr for adult onset (AO) GHD men and women, respectively. Results: A more than doubled risk (IRR, 2.29; 95 % CI 1.23-4.28) for nonosteoporotic fractures was recorded in women with CO GHD, whereas no risk increase was observed among CO GHD men (IRR, 0.61) and AO GHD women (IRR, 1.08). A significantly decreased incidence of fractures (IRR, 0.54; 95% C1, 0.34-0.86) was recorded in AO GHD men. Conclusions: Increased fracture risk in CO GHD women can most likely be explained by interaction between oral estrogen and the GH-IGF-I axis. The adequate substitution rate of testosterone (90%) and GH (94%) may have resulted in significantly lower fracture risk in AO GHD men.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Nonfatal stroke, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients on hormone replacement including growth hormone
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 92:9, s. 3560-3567
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The impact of long-term GH replacement on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in hypopituitary patients is unknown. Objective: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2D) and cardioprotective medication were compared between cohorts of GH-deficient (GHD) patients and population controls. Design and Participants: The incidence of nonfatal stroke and cardiac events was estimated retrospectively from questionnaires in 750 GHD patients and 2314 matched population controls. A prevalence of T2D and cardioprotective medication was recorded at the distribution of questionnaires. Time since first pituitary deficiency to start of GH therapy was 4 and 2 yr, and time on GH therapy was 6 yr for GHD women and men, respectively. Results: Lifelong incidence of nonfatal stroke was tripled in GHD women and doubled in GHD men, but a decline was seen in both genders during periods after first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD, during which most patients had GH therapy. The lifelong incidence of nonfatal cardiac events declined in GHD men during first pituitary hormone deficiency and GHD periods. GHD women had a higher prevalence of T2D and lipid-lowering medication, whereas GHD men had a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication. Conclusions: The declined risks of nonfatal stroke in both genders and of nonfatal cardiac events in GHD men during periods on GH replacement may be caused by prescription of cardioprotective drugs and 6-yr GH replacement. GHD women had an increased prevalence of T2D, partly attributed to higher body mass index and lower physical activity.
  • Holmer, Helene, et al. (författare)
  • Psychosocial health and levels of employment in 851 hypopituitary Swedish patients on long-term GH therapy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 38:6, s. 842-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The psychosocial health and working capacity in hypopituitary patients receiving long-term growth hormone (GH) therapy are unknown. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: Psychosocial health and levels of employment were compared between GH deficient (GHD) patients on long-term replacement and the general population. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign and participants: In a Swedish nationwide study, 851 GHD patients [101 childhood onset (CO) and 750 adult onset (AO)] and 2622 population controls answered a questionnaire regarding current living, employment and educational level, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. The median time on GH therapy for both men and women with CO GHD was 9 years and for AO GHD 6 years, respectively. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: As compared to the controls, the GHD patients were less often working full time, more often on sick leave/disability pension, and to a larger extent alcohol abstainers and never smokers (all; P andlt; 0.05). Predominantly CO GHD women and men, but to some extent also AO GHD women and men, lived less frequently with a partner and more often with their parents. Particularly AO GHD craniopharyngioma women used more antidepressants, while AO GHD men with a craniopharyngioma used more analgesics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: A working capacity to the level of the general population was not achieved among hypopituitary patients, although receiving long-term GH therapy. Patients were less likely to use alcohol and tobacco. The CO GHD population lived a less independent life.
  • Iversen, Lars Lønsmann, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual conflict and intrasexual polymorphism promote assortative mating and halt population differentiation
  • Ingår i: Proceedings. Biological sciences. - : Royal Society. - 1471-2954 .- 0962-8452. ; 286:1899
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sexual conflict is thought to be an important evolutionary force in driving phenotypic diversification, population divergence, and speciation. However, empirical evidence is inconsistent with the generality that sexual conflict enhances population divergence. Here, we demonstrate an alternative evolutionary outcome in which sexual conflict plays a conservative role in maintaining male and female polymorphisms locally, rather than promoting population divergence. In diving beetles, female polymorphisms have evolved in response to male mating harassment and sexual conflict. We present the first empirical evidence that this female polymorphism is associated with (i) two distinct and sympatric male morphological mating clusters (morphs) and (ii) assortative mating between male and female morphs. Changes in mating traits in one sex led to a predictable change in the other sex which leads to predictable within-population evolutionary dynamics in male and female morph frequencies. Our results reveal that sexual conflict can lead to assortative mating between male offence and female defence traits, if a stable male and female mating polymorphisms are maintained. Stable male and female mating polymorphisms are an alternative outcome to an accelerating coevolutionary arms race driven by sexual conflict. Such stable polymorphisms challenge the common view of sexual conflict as an engine of rapid speciation via exaggerated coevolution between sexes.
  • Janhäll, Sara, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Size resolved traffic emission factors of submicrometer particles
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 38:26, s. 4331-4340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Size resolved emission factors for submicrometer particles related to trace gases have been obtained from measurement data at a suburban road side, with a traffic intensity of 18,000 vehicles per day. Number of particles with diameter 10-368 nm, trace gases (NO, NOx, O-3 and SO2) traffic and meteorology parameters were measured outside of Goteborg, Sweden. Size distributions of small particles at the site are presented and their relation to meteorological and traffic related variables was evaluated. Wind speed correlated negatively with 10-368 nm particles and temperature correlated negatively with the smaller particles (10-60 nm). Nitric oxide was shown to be a better tracer for traffic related ultrafine particles, than traffic intensity itself. The calculated emission factor, with errors at 95% confidence level, for particles in the range 10-368 nm is presented in relation to nitrogen oxides. The emission factors were 268+/-60 and 176+/-37 particles cm(-3) per ppb NO and NOx, respectively. The particle emission factors for 10-100, 10-50, 50-170 and 170-368 nm were 260+/-70, 228+/-52, 41+/-11 and <1 particle cm(-3) per ppb NO, respectively. The size distribution of the emissions is given by number of particles normalised by the width of the size bin, i.e. in units of dNd log Dp(-1) ppb(-1). The maximum normalised emission factor was 450 cm(-3) per ppb NO for 20 nm particles. The shape of the size distribution of emissions revealed one sharp peak at 20 nm, with a small shoulder at 70 nm. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kleja, D. B., et al. (författare)
  • Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Biogeochemistry. - : Springer. - 0168-2563 .- 1573-515X. ; 89:1, s. 7-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001-2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (< 1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190-233 g C m(-2) year(-1)). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from -8 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the north to +9 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m(-2) year(-1).
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