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51.
  • Boström, Pontus, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • The SNARE protein SNAP23 and the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c in human skeletal muscle are implicated in insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 59:8, s. 1870-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies suggest that the SNARE protein synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) is involved in the link between increased lipid levels and insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. The objective was to determine whether SNAP23 may also be involved in the known association between lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes in humans, as well as to identify a potential regulator of SNAP23. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy, insulin-sensitive control subjects for expression (mRNA and protein) and intracellular localization (subcellular fractionation and immunohistochemistry) of SNAP23, and for expression of proteins known to interact with SNARE proteins. Insulin resistance was determined by a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Potential mechanisms for regulation of SNAP23 were also investigated in the skeletal muscle cell line L6. RESULTS: We showed increased SNAP23 levels in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with that from lean control subjects. Moreover, SNAP23 was redistributed from the plasma membrane to the microsomal/cytosolic compartment in the patients with the type 2 diabetes. Expression of the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c was higher in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. Studies in L6 cells showed that Munc18c promoted the expression of SNAP23. CONCLUSIONS: We have translated our previous in vitro results into humans by showing that there is a change in the distribution of SNAP23 to the interior of the cell in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. We also showed that Munc18c is a potential regulator of SNAP23.
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52.
  • Brynolf, S., et al. (författare)
  • Improving environmental performance in shipping
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Shipping and the Environment: Improving Environmental Performance in Marine Transportation. - : Springer. - 9783662490457 ; , s. 399-418
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This book addresses the environmental issues related to shipping and the natural environment, including descriptions of and proposed solutions to the issues. Currently, challenges exist that must be addressed if shipping is to become sustainable and fulfil the zero vision of no harmful emissions to the environment. In this chapter, we evaluate the steps that have been taken (if any) to limit the various environmental issues and discuss possible steps to be taken to improve environmental performance. Furthermore, future challenges must also be addressed, e.g., the current trend of increasing ship operations in the Arctic. In general, three factors could be addressed in order to reach environmentally sustainable shipping: regulations, technical solutions, and increased environmental awareness. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016. All rights are reserved.
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53.
  • Cappel, Ute B., et al. (författare)
  • Electronic structure dynamics in a low bandgap polymer studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1463-9076 .- 1463-9084. ; 18:31, s. 21921-21929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Means to measure the temporal evolution following a photo-excitation in conjugated polymers are a key for the understanding and optimization of their function in applications such as organic solar cells. In this paper we study the electronic structure dynamics by direct pump-probe measurements of the excited electrons in such materials. Specifically, we carried out a time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) study of the polymer PCPDTBT by combining an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) high harmonic generation source with a time-of-flight spectrometer. After excitation to either the 1st excited state or to a higher excited state, we follow how the electronic structure develops and relaxes on the electron binding energy scale. Specifically, we follow a less than 50 fs relaxation of the higher exited state and a 10 times slower relaxation of the 1st excited state. We corroborate the results using DFT calculations. Our study demonstrates the power of TRPES for studying photo-excited electron energetics and dynamics of solar cell materials.
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54.
  • Carlsson, Georg, et al. (författare)
  • Artrika vallar ger hållbar energiråvara och gynnar den biologiska mångfalden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: LTV-fakultetens faktablad.
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Detta faktablad utgör slutrapport för projektet "Användning av outnyttjade gräsmarker för biodiversitet och bioenergi - nätverk och fältförsök", som har genomförts under 2011-2014. Projektet har fört samman många aktörer med intresse för jordbruk, naturvård och bioenergi, och visat att nyetablering och extensiv hävd av artrika vallar kan generera värdefulla synergieffekter mellan minskad klimatpåverkan, minskad övergödning och ett rikt odlingslandskap.
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55.
  • Dalaei, K., et al. (författare)
  • Stability of shot peening induced residual stresses and their influence on fatigue lifetime
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Materials science and engineering A. - 0921-5093. ; 528:3, s. 1008-1015
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanical surface treatment methods such as shot peening may improve the fatigue strength of materials. In this study, the effect of shot peening on strain controlled constant amplitude fatigue loading of a near pearlitic microalloyed steel was investigated. The stress amplitudes throughout the whole lifetime were followed, in addition to detailed recording of stress-strain hysteresis loops, particularly at small cycle numbers. The detailed relaxation of residual stresses and the changes in full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray peak at the surface and in depth as function of the number of cycles and plastic strain were recorded. By these techniques, the onset as well as the rate of relaxation of residual stresses could be followed at different strain amplitudes. Pronounced increase in lifetime of the shot peened specimens tested at total strain amplitude smaller than 0.3% (corresponding to 0.034% plastic strain amplitude) was achieved. This coincides with reasonably stable residual stresses at the surface and in depth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
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56.
  • Davidsson, Kent, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Potassium, chlorine, and sulfur in ash, particles, deposits, and corrosion during wood combustion in a circulating fluidized-bed boiler
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Energy & Fuels. - 1520-5029 .- 0887-0624. ; 21:1, s. 71-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of the addition of chlorine and/or sulfur to the fuel on fly ash composition, deposit formation, and superheater corrosion has been studied during biomass combustion in a circulating fluidized-bed boiler. The chlorine (HCl (aq)) and sulfur (SO2 (g)) were added in proportions of relevance for the potassium chemistry. The composition of the bottom and the fly ashes was analyzed. Gas and particle measurements were performed downstream of the cyclone before the convection pass and the flue gas composition was recorded in the stack with a series of standard instruments and an FTIR analyzer. At the position downstream of the cyclone, a deposit probe was situated, simulating a superheater tube. Deposits on the probe and initial corrosion were examined. It is concluded that addition of sulfur and chlorine increases the formation of submicron particles leading to deposition of potassium sulfate and chloride. The results compare well with earlier work based on laboratory-scale experiments concerning effects of chlorine and sulfur on potassium chemistry.
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57.
  • Dey, Anil, et al. (författare)
  • Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: Radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nano Letters. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6992. ; 13:12, s. 5919-5924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ever-growing demand on high-performance electronics has generated transistors with very impressive figures of merit. The continued scaling of the supply voltage of field-effect transistors, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), requires the implementation of advanced transistor architectures including FinFETs and nanowire devices. Moreover, integration of novel materials with high electron mobilities, such as III-V semiconductors and graphene, are also being considered to further enhance the device properties. In nanowire devices, boosting the drive current at a fixed supply voltage or maintaining a constant drive current at a reduced supply voltage may be achieved by increasing the cross-sectional area of a device, however at the cost of deteriorated electrostatics. A gate-all-around nanowire device architecture is the most favorable electrostatic configuration to suppress short channel effects, however, the arrangement of arrays of parallel vertical nanowires to address the drive current predicament will require additional chip area. The use of a core-shell nanowire with a radial heterojunction in a transistor architecture provides an attractive means to address the drive current issue without compromising neither chip area nor device electrostatics. In addition to design advantages of a radial transistor architecture, we in this work illustrate the benefit in terms of drive current per unit chip area and compare the experimental data for axial GaSb/InAs Esaki diodes and TFETs to their radial counterparts and normalize the electrical data to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire, i.e. the occupied chip area, assuming a vertical device geometry. Our data on lateral devices show that radial Esaki diodes deliver almost 7 times higher peak current, Jpeak = 2310 kA/cm2, than the maximum peak current of axial GaSb/InAs(Sb) Esaki diodes per unit chip area. The radial TFETs also deliver high peak current densities Jpeak = 1210 kA/cm2 while their axial counterparts at most carry Jpeak = 77 kA/cm2, normalized to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire.
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58.
  •  
59.
  • Dey, Anil, et al. (författare)
  • GaSb nanowire pFETs for III-V CMOS
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: IEEE Device Research Conference. Proceedings. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 1548-3770. ; , s. 13-14
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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60.
  • Diwakarla, Shanti, et al. (författare)
  • Aryl Sulfonamide Inhibitors of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase Enhance Spine Density in Primary Hippocampal Neuron Cultures
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ACS Chemical Neuroscience. - 1948-7193 .- 1948-7193. ; 7:10, s. 1383-1392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The zinc metallopeptidase insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), which is highly expressed in the hippocampus and other brain regions associated with cognitive function, has been identified as a high-affinity binding site of the hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV). This hexapeptide is thought to facilitate learning and memory by binding to the catalytic site of IRAP to inhibit its enzymatic activity. In support of this hypothesis, low molecular weight, nonpeptide specific inhibitors of TRAP have been shown to enhance memory in rodent models. Recently, it was demonstrated that linear and macrocyclic Ang IV-derived peptides can alter the shape and increase the number of dendritic spines in hippocampal cultures, properties associated with enhanced cognitive performance. After screening a library of 10 500 drug like substances for their ability to inhibit IRAP, we identified a series of low molecular weight aryl sulfonamides, which exhibit no structural similarity to Ang IV, as moderately potent IRAP inhibitors:A structural and biological characterization of three of these aryl sulfonamides was performed. Their binding modes to human IRAP were explored by docking calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations and binding affinity estimations using the linear interaction energy method. Two alternative binding modes emerged from this analysis, both of which correctly rank the ligands according to their experimental binding affinities for this series of compounds. Finally, we show that two of these drug-like IRAP inhibitors can alter dendritic spine morphology and increase spine density in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons.
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