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51.
  • Bjärstig, Therese, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Between protocol and reality Swedish municipal comprehensive planning
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Grön översiktsplanering i fjällen.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Spatial planning using a landscape approach has been recognized as being essential for reconciling ecological, cultural and socioeconomic dimensions in sustainable development (SuD). Although embraced as a concept, there is a lack of planning tools capable of incorporating multi-level, multifunctional and multi-sectoral perspectives, especially in a rural context. The departure point in this paper is the legal requirements for municipal comprehensive planning (MCP) in Sweden and an e-mail survey about incentives, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation in MCP in all 15 Swedish mountain municipalities. The purpose of this explorative study is to examine whether MCP could be a tool in planning for SuD. Results indicate a general lack of resources and a low status of MCP that affect, and even limit, stakeholder involvement, policy integration and implementation. However, legal requirements for MCP are targeted at SuD, and municipal personnel responsible for planning appreciate the potential of MCP. Therefore, there is potential to develop the MCP into an effective landscape planning tool. To accomplish this, the status of an active planning process has to be raised, the mandate of the local planning agency has to be secured, and residents and land users have to be involved throughout the planning process.</p>
52.
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53.
  • Bostrom, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • The SNARE protein SNAP23 and the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c in human skeletal muscle are implicated in insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X. ; 59:8, s. 1870-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Our previous studies suggest that the SNARE protein synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) is involved in the link between increased lipid levels and insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. The objective was to determine whether SNAP23 may also be involved in the known association between lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes in humans, as well as to identify a potential regulator of SNAP23. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy, insulin-sensitive control subjects for expression (mRNA and protein) and intracellular localization (subcellular fractionation and immunohistochemistry) of SNAP23, and for expression of proteins known to interact with SNARE proteins. Insulin resistance was determined by a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp Potential mechanisms for regulation of SNAP23 were also investigated in the skeletal muscle cell line L6. RESULTS-We showed increased SNAP23 levels in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with that from lean control subjects Moreover, SNAP23 was redistributed from the plasma membrane to the microsomal/cytosolic compartment in the patients with the type 2 diabetes Expression of the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c was higher in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes Studies in L6 cells showed that Munc18c promoted the expression of SNAP23. CONCLUSIONS-We have translated our previous in vitro results into humans by showing that there is a change in the distribution of SNAP23 to the interior of the cell in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. We also showed that Munc18c is a potential regulator of SNAP23. Diabetes 59: 1870-1878, 2010
54.
  • Bowler, Matthew W., et al. (författare)
  • Automation and Experience of Controlled Crystal Dehydration: Results from the European Synchrotron HC1 Collaboration
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Crystal Growth & Design. - The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1528-7483. ; 15:3, s. 1043-1054
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Controlled dehydration of macromolecular crystals can lead to significant improvements in crystalline order, which often manifests itself in higher diffraction quality. Devices that can accurately control the humidity surrounding crystals on a beamline have led to this technique being increasingly adopted as experiments become easier and more reproducible. However, these experiments are often carried out by trial and error, and in order to facilitate and streamline them four European synchrotrons have established a collaboration around the HC1b dehydration device. The MAX IV Laboratory, Diamond Light Source, BESSY II, and the EMBL Grenoble Outstation/ESRF have pooled information gathered from user experiments, and on the use of the device, to propose a set of guidelines for these experiments. Here, we present the status and automation of the installations, advice on how best to perform experiments using the device, and an analysis of successful experiments that begins to show some trends in the type of protocols required by some systems. The dehydration methods shown are applicable to any device that allows control of the relative humidity of the air surrounding a macromolecular crystal.
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55.
  • Broström, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Landscape, climate, sea-level variations and human living conditions in a coastal area of western Blekinge on the Baltic sea between 11600 cal BP and AD 1000 : E22- Sölvesborg-Stensnäs-project members 2014
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: E22-projektet, sträckan Sölve – Stensnäs, Sölvesborgs och Karlshamns kommuner, Blekinge län.. - Stockholm : Blekinge museum.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The aim of the project has been to reveal the living conditionsfor humans in a coastal area of the Baltic sea during thirteen thousand years and to study the implications of variations in climate, sea-level and landscape changes. The archaeological ex- cavations, well integrated with paleoecological studies, along a twenty kilometer new road-built between Sölvesborg and Stensnäs has resulted in unique findings which shed new light on to the human history in southern Scandinavia and adjust- ment of the sea-level curve in western Blekinge. Time periods from early mesolithic, neolithic, bronze age until late iron age are well represented at the sites along the former bay and lake Vesan. Macrofossil analysis of the plant material at the archae- ological sites has revealed the food resources, burial gifts and given a glimpse of the local environment. Sediment cores from the center and near shore of former lake Vesan has given the opportunity to reconstruct the aquatic conditions and vegeta- tion in the surrounding landscape based on analysis of diatoms, pollen, macrofossils and carbon content. The vast number of radiocarbon dates of the archaeological material from various altitudes at the sites has enabled adjustment of the sea-level curve especially during Ancylus-, Littorina transgressions and aregression around 8.2 ka.</p><p></p>
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56.
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57.
  • Cappel, Ute B, et al. (författare)
  • Electronic structure dynamics in a low bandgap polymer studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP. - Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1463-9076 .- 1463-9084. ; 18:31, s. 21921-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Means to measure the temporal evolution following a photo-excitation in conjugated polymers are a key for the understanding and optimization of their function in applications such as organic solar cells. In this paper we study the electronic structure dynamics by direct pump-probe measurements of the excited electrons in such materials. Specifically, we carried out a time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) study of the polymer PCPDTBT by combining an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) high harmonic generation source with a time-of-flight spectrometer. After excitation to either the 1st excited state or to a higher excited state, we follow how the electronic structure develops and relaxes on the electron binding energy scale. Specifically, we follow a less than 50 fs relaxation of the higher exited state and a 10 times slower relaxation of the 1st excited state. We corroborate the results using DFT calculations. Our study demonstrates the power of TRPES for studying photo-excited electron energetics and dynamics of solar cell materials.</p>
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58.
  • Cardell, Lars-Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • TOTALL: high cost of allergic rhinitis-a national Swedish population-based questionnaire study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2055-1010. ; 26, s. 15082-15082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allergic rhinitis is a global illness with a well-recognised impact on quality of life and work performance. Comparatively little is known about the extent of its economic impact on society. The TOTALL study estimates the total cost of allergic rhinitis using a sample representing the entire Swedish population of working age. A questionnaire focused on allergic rhinitis was mailed out to a random population of Swedish residents, aged 18-65 years. Health-care contacts, medications, absenteeism (absence from work) and presenteeism (reduced working capacity at work) were assessed, and the direct and indirect costs of allergic rhinitis were calculated. Medication use was evaluated in relation to the ARIA guidelines. In all, 3,501 of 8,001 (44%) answered the questionnaire, and 855 (24%) of these reported allergic rhinitis. The mean annual direct and indirect costs because of allergic rhinitis were €210.3 and €750.8, respectively, resulting in a total cost of €961.1 per individual/year. Presenteeism represented 70% of the total cost. Antihistamines appear to be used in excess in relation to topical steroids, and the use of nasal decongestants was alarmingly high. The total cost of allergic rhinitis in Sweden, with a population of 9.5 million, was estimated at €1.3 billion annually. These unexpectedly high costs could be related to the high prevalence of disease, in combination with the previously often underestimated indirect costs. Improved adherence to guidelines might ease the economic burden on society.
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59.
  • Carlsson, Beatrice, et al. (författare)
  • Quasispecies dynamics and molecular evolution of human norovirus capsid P region during chronic infection
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of General Virology. - 0022-1317 .- 1465-2099. ; 90:2, s. 432-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In this novel study, we have for the first time identified evolutionarily conserved capsid residues in an individual chronically infected with norovirus (GGII.3). From 2000 to 2003, a total of 147 P1-1 and P2 capsid sequences were sequenced and investigated for evolutionarily conserved and functionally important residues by the evolutionary trace (ET) algorithm. The ET algorithm revealed more absolutely conserved residues (ACR) in the P1-1 domain (47/53, 88 %) as compared with the P2 domain (86/133, 64 %). The capsid P1-1 and P2 domains evolved in time-dependent manner, with a distinct break point observed between autumn/winter of year 2000 (isolates P1, P3 and P5) and spring to autumn of year 2001 (isolates P11, P13 and P15), which presumably coincided with a change of clinical symptoms. Furthermore, the ET analysis revealed a similar receptor-binding pattern as reported for Norwalk and VA387 strains, with the CS-4 and CS-5 patch (Norwalk strain) including residues 329 and 377 and residues 306 and 310, respectively, all being ACR in all partitions. Most interesting was that residues 343, 344, 345, 374, 390 and 391 of the proposed receptor A and B trisaccharide binding site (VA387 strain) within the P2 domain remained ACR in all partitions, presumably because there was no selective advantage to alter the histo blood group antigens (HBGA) receptor binding specificity. In conclusion, this study provides novel insights to the evolutionary process of norovirus during chronic infection.</p>
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60.
  • Chapron, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating wolf (Canis lupus) population size from number of packs and an individual based model
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ecological Modelling. - Elsevier. - 0304-3800 .- 1872-7026. ; 339, s. 33-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estimating wildlife population-size is fundamental for wildlife management and conservation. However, making monitoring of population size less resource demanding while still keeping a high monitoring accuracy and precision remains a recurrent challenge. One proposed alternative to count individuals is to instead focus on counting a segment of the population that is easier to monitor but at the same time well informative on total population size. We show how total population size can be estimated from group counts by using an individual-based population model in a social living species. We developed a wolf (Canis lupus) specific Individual Based Model and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to fit this population model to the time series of annual number of packs, reproductions and pairs obtained from Scandinavian monitoring data. Model informative priors were obtained with data from collared individuals by the Scandinavian wolf research project. The fitted model was then used to estimate a conversion factor from number of packs to total number of individuals and to number of reproductions. There was a good fit between the retained simulations by ABC and the observed Scandinavian wolf population trajectory. The fitted simulations returned a conversion factor of 8.0 (95% CI = 6.62-10.07) from number of packs to total population size and of 1.0 (95% CI = 0.93-1.12) to number of reproductions in December. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the conversion factor from packs to total population size was positively correlated with pup survival and litter size and negatively correlated with subadult, vagrant and adult survivals. Using an individual based model allowed us to model the full complexity of demographic traits of a social-living species such as the wolf. The flexibility of the model also meant that the conversion factor could be estimated for any month during the year. Our approach to estimate total population size from counts of groups requires having a population model where both individuals and groups are explicitly described and can be applied to other wolf populations and group-living species where counting all individuals over a large area is unfeasible.
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