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321.
  • Yuan, Xiaoming, et al. (författare)
  • A new approach to establish both stable and metastable phase equilibria for fcc ordered/disordered phase transition : application to the Al-Ni and Ni-Si systems
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Materials Chemistry and Physics. - 0254-0584 .- 1879-3312. ; 135:1, s. 94-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Both two-sublattice (2SL) and four-sublattice (4SL) models in the framework of the compound energy formalism can be used to describe the fcc ordered/disordered transitions. When transferring the parameters of 2SL disregarding the metastable ordered states into those of 4SL, inconsistence in either stable or metastable phase diagrams could appear, as detected in both Al-Ni and Ni-Si systems. To avoid such a kind of drawback, this behavior was analyzed and investigated in the Ni-Si and Al-Ni systems with the aid of first principle calculations. Furthermore, a new approach considering both the stable and metastable fcc ordered phase equilibria deduced from the first principles calculations was proposed to perform a reliable thermodynamic modeling for the fcc ordered/disordered transition. The Ni-Si system was then thermodynamically assessed using the presently proposed approach. The good agreement between the calculation and experiments demonstrates the reliability of the proposed approach. It is expected that the approach is valid for other systems showing complex ordered/disordered transitions.</p>
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322.
  • Zeng, Chenjie, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. Method: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation. Results: Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 x 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 x 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 x 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 x 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P &lt; 0.05 in East Asians, but none of the associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P &lt; 0.05. Conclusion: This study identified four independent association signals at 12p11 and revealed potentially functional variants, providing additional insights into the underlying biological mechanism(s) for the association observed between variants at 12p11 and breast cancer risk.</p>
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323.
  • Zeng, Wei, et al. (författare)
  • Extreme water-hammer pressure during one-after-another load shedding in pumped-storage stations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Renewable energy. - 0960-1481 .- 1879-0682. ; 99, s. 35-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The intermittent and unpredictable wind and solar power leads to the frequent transient processing of pumped-storage stations, increasing the probability of load shedding. When one turbine sheds its load, the other turbines in the same hydraulic unit become overloaded and may shed their loads, which is referred to as a "one-after-another (OAA)" load-shedding process. An extremely high water-hammer pressure (WHP), namely, high spiral case pressure (SCP) or low draft tube pressure (DTP), may arise in this case, directly threatening the safety of the PSS. The objective of this study was to theoretically determine the hydraulic connections between the turbines and reveal the mechanism of the rapid rise in the WHP under the OAA load-shedding conditions. Theoretical derivations inferred that the drastic pressure changes in a trail shedding turbine (TST) are caused by the hydraulic connection with the lead shedding turbine (LST) in the S region. Furthermore, numerical simulations and model experiments were performed for the OAA load-shedding process, which confirmed the validity of the theoretical analysis. Finally, an analysis was conducted on the distribution of the water inertia in the upstream and downstream branch pipes, and engineering measures were proposed to guarantee the safe operation of PSS systems.</p>
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324.
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325.
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326.
  • Zhang, S. -N, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to the high energy cosmic-radiation detection (HERD) facility onboard China's future space station
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - Sissa Medialab Srl.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is one of several space astronomy payloads onboard China's Space Station, which is planned for operation starting around 2025 for about 10 years. The main scientific objectives of HERD are searching for signals of dark matter annihilation products, precise cosmic electron (plus positron) spectrum and anisotropy measurements up to 10 TeV, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. HERD is composed of a 3-D cubic calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by microstrip silicon trackers (STKs) from five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of about 7,500 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. The top STK microstrips of six X-Y layers are sandwiched with tungsten converters to make precise directional measurements of incoming electrons and gamma-rays. In the baseline design, each of the four side STKs is made of only three layers microstrips. All STKs will also be used for measuring the charge and incoming directions of cosmic rays, as well as identifying back scattered tracks. With this design, HERD can achieve the following performance: energy resolution of 1% for electrons and gamma-rays beyond 100 GeV and 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV; electron/proton separation power better than 10-5; effective geometrical factors of &amp;gt;3 m2sr for electron and diffuse gamma-rays, &amp;gt;2 m2sr for cosmic ray nuclei. R&amp;amp;D is under way for reading out the LYSO signals with optical fiber coupled to image intensified IsCMOS and CALO prototype of 250 LYSO crystals. </p>
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327.
  • Zhang, S. N., et al. (författare)
  • The high energy cosmic-radiation detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. - 9780819496126
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is one of several space astronomy payloads of the cosmic lighthouse program onboard China's Space Station, which is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. The main scientific objectives of HERD are indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. HERD is composed of a 3-D cubic calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by microstrip silicon trackers (STKs) from five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of about 104 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. The top STK microstrips of seven X-Y layers are sandwiched with tungsten converters to make precise directional measurements of incoming electrons and gamma-rays. In the baseline design, each of the four side SKTs is made of only three layers microstrips. All STKs will also be used for measuring the charge and incoming directions of cosmic rays, as well as identifying back scattered tracks. With this design, HERD can achieve the following performance: energy resolution of 1% for electrons and gamma-rays beyond 100 GeV, 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV; electron/proton separation power better than 10-5; effective geometrical factors of &amp;gt;3 m2sr for electron and diffuse gamma-rays, &amp;gt;2 m2sr for cosmic ray nuclei. R and D is under way for reading out the LYSO signals with optical fiber coupled to image intensified CCD and the prototype of one layer of CALO. © 2014 SPIE.</p>
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328.
  • Zhang, Xingxing, et al. (författare)
  • The early design stage for building renovation with a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) heat pump water heating system : Techno-economic analysis in three European climates
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management. - 0196-8904 .- 1879-2227. ; 106, s. 964-986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Most of the building renovation plans are usually decided in the early design stage. This delicate phase contains the greatest opportunity to achieve the high energy performance buildings after refurbishment. It is therefore important to provide the pertinent energy performance information for the designers or decision-makers from multidisciplinary and comparative points of view. This paper investigates the renovation concept of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) installed on a reference residential building by technical evaluation and economic analysis in three typical European climates, including North Europe (represented by Stockholm), West Europe (represented by London) and South Europe (represented by Madrid). The aim of this paper is firstly to explore the LHP-STF’s sensitivity with regards to the overall building socio-energy performance and secondly to study the LHP-STF’s economic feasibility by developing a dedicated business model. The reference building model was derived from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial buildings research, in which the energy data for the building models were from the ASHRAE codes and other standard practices. The financial data were collected from the European statistic institute and the cost of system was based on the manufactured prototype. Several critical financial indexes were applied to evaluate the investment feasibility of the LHP-STF system in building renovation, such as Payback Period (PP), Net Present Value (NPV), and the modified internal rate of return method (IRR). Four common investment options were considered in this business model, including buying outright (BO), buying by instalment (BI), energy efficiency funding (EEF) and power purchase agreement (PPA). The research results indicate that the LHP-STF could contribute to the hot water load throughout the year with substantially reduced heating load in winter, and yet a slight increased cooling load in summer. Among four investment options, the BO was considered as the best investment method with the highest NPV, IRR and the shortest payback period. With regards to relatively limited solar resources, London was found to be the best place for investment with the highest economical revenues and an attractive payback period of less than four years for all purchase options. Although Madrid has the richest solar resource, this system has the lowest economic profit and the longest payback period. This outcome confirms that the renewable energy incentives have a higher impact than solar resources on current solar thermal facade technologies under such pricing fundamentals. This multidisciplinary research is expected to be helpful for the strategic decisions at the early design stage for building renovation with the proposed system and further promote development of solar driven service system, leading to the savings in fossil fuel consumption and reduction in carbon emission.</p>
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329.
  • Zhao, Zhiyuan, et al. (författare)
  • CDK9 and SPT5 proteins are specifically required for expression of herpes simplex virus 1 replication-dependent late genes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258. ; 292:37, s. 15489-15500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA replication greatly enhances expression of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) gamma 2 late genes by still unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of CDK9, suppresses expression of gamma 2 late genes with an IC50 of 5 mu M, which is at least 10 times lower than the IC50 value required for inhibition of expression of early genes. The effect of DRB could not be explained by inhibition of DNA replication per se or loading of RNA polymerase II to late promoters and subsequent reduction of transcription. Instead, DRB reduces accumulation of gamma 2 late mRNA in the cytoplasm. In addition, we show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of the transcription factor SPT5, but not NELF-E, also gives rise to a specific inhibition of HSV-1 late gene expression. Finally, addition of DRB reduces co-immunoprecipitation of ICP27 using an anti-SPT5 antibody. Our results suggest that efficient expression of replication-dependent gamma 2 late genes is, at least in part, regulated by CDK9 dependent co-and/or post-transcriptional events involving SPT5 and ICP27.
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330.
  • Zhu, J. H., et al. (författare)
  • Polarization induced deterioration of reinforced concrete with CFRP anode
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Materials. - 1996-1944. ; 8:7, s. 4316-4331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m2, corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface. © 2015 by the authors.
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