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  • Awla, Darbaz, et al. (författare)
  • Rho-kinase signalling regulates trypsinogen activation and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology. - The British Pharmacological Society. - 1476-5381. ; 162, s. 648-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is characterized by trypsinogen activation, infiltration of leucocytes and tissue necrosis but the intracellular signalling mechanisms regulating organ injury in the pancreas remain elusive. Rho-kinase is a potent regulator of specific cellular processes effecting several pro-inflammatory activities. Herein, we examined the role of Rho-kinase signalling in acute pancreatitis. Experimental approach: Pancreatitis was induced by infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in C57BL/6 mice. Animals were treated with a Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (0.5-5 mg kg(-1) ) before induction of pancreatitis. Key results: Taurocholate infusion caused a clear-cut increase in serum amylase, pancreatic neutrophil infiltration, acinar cell necrosis and oedema formation in the pancreas. Levels of pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) and lung MPO were significantly increased, indicating local and systemic disease. Inhibition of Rho-kinase activity dose-dependently protected against pancreatitis. For example, 5 mg kg(-1) Y-27632 reduced acinar cell necrosis, leucocyte infiltration and pancreatic oedema by 90%, 89% and 58% respectively as well as tissue levels of MPO by 75% and MIP-2 by 84%. Moreover, Rho-kinase inhibition decreased lung MPO by 75% and serum amylase by 83%. Pancreatitis-induced TAP levels were reduced by 61% in Y-27632-treated mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase abolished secretagogue-induced activation of trypsinogen in pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. Conclusions and Implications: Our novel data suggest that Rho-kinase signalling plays an important role in acute pancreatitis by regulating trypsinogen activation and subsequent CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil infiltration and tissue injury. Thus, these results indicate that Rho-kinase may constitute a novel target in the management of SAP.
  • Awla, Darbaz, et al. (författare)
  • TLR4 but not TLR2 regulates inflammation and tissue damage in acute pancreatitis induced by retrograde infusion of taurocholate.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Inflammation Research. - Birkhaüser. - 1420-908X. ; 60, s. 1093-1098
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil infiltration is a key regulator in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), although the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in AP remains elusive. The aim of this study was to define the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in leukocyte recruitment and tissue damage in severe AP. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: AP was induced by retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in wild-type, TLR2- and TLR4-deficient mice. Samples were collected 24 h after induction of AP. RESULTS: Taurocholate challenge caused a clear-cut pancreatic damage characterized by increased acinar cell necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, focal hemorrhage and edema formation, as well as increased levels of blood amylase and CXCL2 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in the pancreas and serum. Moreover, challenge with taurocholate increased activation of trypsinogen in the pancreas. Notably, TLR2 gene-deficient mice exhibited a similar phenotype to wild-type mice after challenge with taurocholate. In contrast, tissue damage, pancreatic and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, serum and pancreatic levels of CXCL2 as well as blood amylase were significantly reduced in TLR4-deficient mice exposed to taurocholate. However, taurocholate-induced activation of trypsinogen was intact in TLR4-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a role for TLR4 but not TLR2 in the pathogenesis of severe AP in mice.
  • Braun, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Primary and secondary capture of platelets onto inflamed femoral artery endothelium is dependent on P-selectin and PSGL-1.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmacology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0712. ; 592, s. 128-132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelets constitute a key role in vascular injuries, however, the detailed mechanisms behind platelet-endothelial cell and platelet-leukocyte interactions in the femoral artery are not yet fully elucidated. We used intravital fluorescence microscopy of the femoral artery in C57BL/6 mice to study primary and secondary capture of platelets onto endothelial cells as well as onto adherent platelets and leukocytes in vivo. By use of monoclonal antibodies, the role of P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) in these adhesive interactions in mice exposed to endotoxin was determined. Intravenous injection of endotoxin significantly increased gene expression of P-selectin as well as platelet tethering, rolling and adhesion in the femoral artery. Pretreatment with the anti-PSGL-1 antibody decreased platelet tethering by 85%, platelet rolling by 88% and platelet adhesion by 96%. Immunoneutralization of P-selectin reduced platelet tethering by 91%, platelet rolling by 98%, and platelet adhesion by 97%. In addition, inhibition of P-selectin and PSGL-1 completely abolished secondary capture of platelets onto adherent platelets and leukocytes. Our data show that P-selectin and PSGL-1 mediate early interactions between platelets and other cells, including endothelial cells and leukocytes, in inflamed arteries. These novel results suggest that interference with P-selectin and PSGL-1 may be a useful target in strategies aiming to protect the vascular wall during arterial inflammation.
  • Changhui, Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of Ras signalling reduces neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmacology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0712. ; 746, s. 245-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutrophil recruitment is known to be a rate-limiting step in mediating tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammation and organ damage in AP remain elusive. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signalling in AP. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) before infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic and lung tissues as well as blood were collected 24h after pancreatitis induction. Pretreatment with FTS decreased serum amylase levels by 82% and significantly attenuated acinar cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage and oedema formation in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the inflamed pancreas by 42%. In addition, administration of FTS decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines as well as circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-mobility group box 1 in animals exposed to taurocholate. Moreover, treatment with FTS reduced taurocholate-induced MPO levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras signalling had no effect on neutrophil expression of Mac-1 in mice with pancreatitis. Moreover, FTS had no direct impact on trypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results indicate that Ras signalling controls CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in severe AP. Thus, our findings highlight a new signalling mechanism regulating neutrophil recruitment in the pancreas and suggest that inhibition of Ras signalling might be a useful strategy to attenuate local and systemic inflammation in severe AP.
  • Changhui, Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet-Derived CCL5 Regulates CXC Chemokine Formation and Neutrophil Recruitment in Acute Experimental Colitis.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cellular Physiology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-4652. ; 231:2, s. 370-376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulating data suggest that platelets not only regulate thrombosis and haemostasis but also inflammatory processes. Platelets contain numerous potent pro-inflammatory compounds, including the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4 although their role in acute colitis remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the role of platelets and platelet-derived chemokines in acute colitis. Acute colitis was induced in female Balb/c mice by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for five days. Animals received a platelet-depleting, anti-CCL5, anti-CXCL4 or a control antibody prior to DSS challenge. Colonic tissue was collected for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, CXCL5, CXCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CCL5 levels as well as morphological analyses. Platelet depletion reduced tissue damage and clinical disease activity index in DSS-exposed animals. Platelet depletion not only reduced levels of CXCL2 and CXCL5 but also levels of CCL5 in the inflamed colon. Immunoneutralization of CCL5 but not CXCL4 reduced tissue damage, CXC chemokine expression and neutrophil recruitment in DSS-treated animals. These findings show that platelets play a key role in acute colitis by regulating CXC chemokine generation, neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in the colon. Moreover, our results suggest that platelet-derived CCL5 is an important link between platelet activation and neutrophil recruitment in acute colitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Changhui, Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Rac1 signaling regulates neutrophil-dependent tissue damage in experimental colitis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmacology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0712. ; 741:Jul 30, s. 90-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excessive neutrophil recruitment in the colon is a major feature in acute colitis although the signaling mechanisms behind colonic recruitment of neutrophils remain elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that Rac1 activity might play an important role in neutrophil infiltration in the inflamed colon. Female Balb/c mice were treated with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (0.5 and 5mg/kg) before and daily after administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colonic tissue was collected for quantification of neutrophil recruitment, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CXC chemokine formation as well as histological damage score five days after challenge with DSS. Rac1 activity was determined by western blot and Mac-1 expression by flow cytometry in neutrophils. Administration of NSC23766 decreased DSS-induced neutrophil recruitment and tissue damage in the colon. Rac1 inhibition decreased colonic formation of IL-6 and CXC chemokines in experimental colitis. Chemokine challenge increased Rac1 activity in neutrophils and NSC23766 markedly reduced this neutrophil activity of Rac1. Inhibition of Rac1 abolished CXC chemokine-induced neutrophil chemotaxis and up-regulation of Mac-1 in vitro. Taken together, Rac1 signaling plays a significant role in controlling accumulation of neutrophils and tissue injury in experimental colitis. Thus, our novel results suggest that targeting Rac1 signaling might be a useful way to protect against neutrophil-mediated tissue injury in acute colitis.
  • Chew, Michelle, et al. (författare)
  • Increased plasma levels of heparin-binding protein in patients with shock: a prospective, cohort study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Inflammation Research. - Birkhaüser. - 1420-908X. ; 61:4, s. 375-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a potent inducer of increased vascular permeability. The purpose of this study was to examine plasma levels of HBP in patients with shock. DESIGN: Fifty-three consecutive patients with septic and non-septic shock at a mixed-bed intensive care unit were included, as well as 20 age-matched controls. Patients with local infections but without signs of shock served as infectious controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine plasma levels of HBP. RESULTS: There were no differences in serum HBP levels between healthy controls and those with local infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia and gastroenteritis, without shock. Levels of HBP were higher in patients with non-septic shock and septic shock than healthy controls. However, there was no difference in serum HBP levels between patients with septic shock and those with non-septic shock. Moreover, HBP levels were not different between patients with low and high APACHE II scores. Plasma levels of HBP were similar in surviving and non-surviving patients with shock. CONCLUSIONS: HBP is elevated in patients with shock from septic and non-septic etiologies. Future investigations are required to define the functional role of HBP in patients with shock.
  • Chew, Michelle, et al. (författare)
  • Soluble CD40L (CD154) is increased in patients with shock.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Inflammation Research. - Birkhaüser. - 1420-908X. ; 59, s. 979-982
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Recent data suggest that soluble CD40L (sCD40L) plays an important role in murine sepsis. The aim of the present study was to determine plasma levels of CD40L in critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and shock, with and without sepsis. DESIGN: A prospective observational one-centre cohort study in a mixed-bed ICU of an university hospital. Fifty-three consecutive patients fulfilling the criteria for SIRS with shock as well as seven age-matched controls were included. ELISA was used to determine sCD40L in the plasma. RESULTS: The level of sCD40L in plasma from healthy controls was 0.18 +/- 0.03 ng/ml. It was found that sCD40L levels were significantly higher in patients with non-septic shock (0.72 +/- 0.18 ng/ml) and septic shock (0.50 +/- 0.1 ng/ml). However, the levels of sCD40L were not different between these two groups of patients, or in those with low and high APACHE scores. CONCLUSION: Our data show that sCD40L is increased in patients with shock from septic and non-septic etiologies. However, further studies are needed to delineate the functional significance of sCD40L in the clinical outcome in shock patients.
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