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51.
  • Hwaiz, Rundk, et al. (författare)
  • Rac1-dependent secretion of platelet-derived CCL5 regulates neutrophil recruitment via activation of alveolar macrophages in septic lung injury.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Leukocyte Biology. - : John Wiley and Sons Ltd. - 1938-3673. ; 97:5, s. 975-984
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulating evidence suggest that platelets play an important role in regulating neutrophil recruitment in septic lung injury. Herein, we hypothesized that platelet-derived CCL5 might facilitate sepsis-induced neutrophil accumulation in the lung. Abdominal sepsis was induced by CLP in C57BL/6 mice. CLP increased plasma levels of CCL5. Platelet depletion and treatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 markedly reduced CCL5 in the plasma of septic mice. Moreover, Rac1 inhibition completely inhibited proteasePAR4-induced secretion of CCL5 in isolated platelets. Immunoneutralization of CCL5 decreased CLP-induced neutrophil infiltration, edema formation, and tissue injury in the lung. However, inhibition of CCL5 function had no effect on CLP-induced expression of Mac-1 on neutrophils. The blocking of CCL5 decreased plasma and lung levels of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in septic animals. CCL5 had no effect on neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting an indirect effect of CCL5 on neutrophil recruitment. Intratracheal challenge with CCL5 increased accumulation of neutrophils and formation of CXCL2 in the lung. Administration of the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 abolished CCL5-induced pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils. Isolated alveolar macrophages expressed significant levels of the CCL5 receptors CCR1 and CCR5. In addition, CCL5 triggered significant secretion of CXCL2 from isolated alveolar macrophages. Notably, intratracheal administration of clodronate not only depleted mice of alveolar macrophages but also abolished CCL5-induced formation of CXCL2 in the lung. Taken together, our findings suggest that Rac1 regulates platelet secretion of CCL5 and that CCL5 is a potent inducer of neutrophil recruitment in septic lung injury via formation of CXCL2 in alveolar macrophages.
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52.
  • Hwaiz, Rundk, et al. (författare)
  • Rac1 regulates platelet shedding of CD40L in abdominal sepsis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Laboratory Investigation. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1530-0307. ; 94:9, s. 1054-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) regulates platelet shedding of CD40L in abdominal sepsis. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling sepsis-induced shedding of CD40L from activated platelets remain elusive. Rac1 has been reported to regulate diverse functions in platelets; we hypothesized herein that Rac1 might regulate platelet shedding of CD40L in sepsis. The specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (N6-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl] amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]-2 methyl-4, 6-quinolinediamine trihydrochloride) was administered to mice undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Levels of CD40L and MMP-9 in plasma, platelets, and neutrophils were determined by use of ELISA, western blot, and confocal microscopy. Platelet depletion abolished the CLP-induced increase in plasma levels of CD40L. Rac1 activity was significantly increased in platelets from septic animals. Administration of NSC23766 abolished the CLP-induced enhancement of soluble CD40L levels in the plasma. Moreover, Rac1 inhibition completely inhibited proteinase-activated receptor-4-induced surface mobilization and secretion of CD40L in isolated platelets. CLP significantly increased plasma levels of MMP-9 and Rac1 activity in neutrophils. Treatment with NSC23766 markedly attenuated MMP-9 levels in the plasma from septic mice. In addition, Rac1 inhibition abolished chemokine-induced secretion of MMP-9 from isolated neutrophils. Finally, platelet shedding of CD40L was significantly reduced in response to stimulation with supernatants from activated MMP-9-deficient neutrophils compared with supernatants from wild-type neutrophils, indicating a direct role of neutrophil-derived MMP-9 in regulating platelet shedding of CD40L. Our novel data suggest that sepsis-induced platelet shedding of CD40L is dependent on Rac1 signaling. Rac1 controls surface mobilization of CD40L on activated platelets and MMP-9 secretion from neutrophils. Thus, our findings indicate that targeting Rac1 signaling might be a useful way to control pathologic elevations of CD40L in the systemic circulation in abdominal sepsis.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 21 July 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.92.
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53.
  • Hwaiz, Rundk, et al. (författare)
  • Rac1 signaling regulates sepsis-induced pathologic inflammation in the lung via attenuation of Mac-1 expression and CXC chemokine formation.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Surgical Research. - : Elsevier. - 1095-8673. ; 183:2, s. 798-807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excessive neutrophil recruitment is a major feature in septic lung damage although the signaling mechanisms behind pulmonary infiltration of neutrophils in sepsis remain elusive. In the present study, we hypothesized that Rac1 might play an important role in pulmonary neutrophil accumulation and tissue injury in abdominal sepsis. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (5 mg/kg) before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected for the quantification of neutrophil recruitment and edema and CXC chemokine formation. Blood was collected for the determination of Mac-1 on neutrophils and proinflammatory compounds in plasma. Gene expression of CXC chemokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in alveolar macrophages. Rac1 activity was increased in lungs from septic animals, and NSC23766 significantly decreased pulmonary activity of Rac1 induced by CLP. Administration of NSC23766 markedly reduced CLP-triggered neutrophil infiltration, edema formation, and tissue damage in the lung. Inhibition of Rac1 decreased CLP-induced neutrophil expression of Mac-1 and pulmonary formation of CXC chemokines. Moreover, NSC23766 abolished the sepsis-evoked elevation of messenger RNA levels of CXC chemokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha in alveolar macrophages. Rac1 inhibition decreased the CLP-induced increase in plasma levels of high mobility group protein B1 and interleukin 6, indicating a role of Rac1 in systemic inflammation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Rac1 signaling plays a key role in regulating pulmonary infiltration of neutrophils and tissue injury via regulation of chemokine production in the lung and Mac-1 expression on neutrophils in abdominal sepsis. Thus, targeting Rac1 activity might be a useful strategy to protect the lung in abdominal sepsis.
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54.
  • Jeppsson, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence-based medicine in HBP surgery: Is there any?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: HPB. - : Elsevier. - 1477-2574. ; 7:3, s. 197-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become widely accepted as a basis for clinical decision in many fields of medicine. This review examines the specific role of EBM in hepato-biliary and pancreatic (HBP) surgery. EBM relies on four main sources, including clinical guidelines, meta-analyses, primary information and clinical experience. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) constitute the cornerstone of EBM and a recent study reported that there are relatively few RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of surgical therapies and procedures (1,530 out of 45,342 or 3.4% in five leading surgical journals) and only a few in HBP surgery. Although the effort must be to implement EBM as far as possible in HBP surgery, there are several obstacles to conducting RCTs in HBP surgery, including problems associated with standardization of surgical skills, sham-operations often impossible to perform, and the general applicability of specific findings may be uncertain.Discussion. This paper will provide two relevant examples of EBM in HBP surgery in patients with hepatic metastases and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, illustrating some problems but also the potential of introducing EBM in HBP surgery. In the future, our effort must be devoted to implementing EBM in applicable areas of HBP surgery but also remembering that in certain areas accumulated knowledge from observational studies, including drainage of abscesses and surgical treatment of intestinal obstruction, may have similar or even higher clinical value than RCTs.
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55.
  • Jeppsson, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6643. ; 3:5, s. 604-612
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli) may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM) and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential mechanisms, impact on gut microbiota and influence on clinical management. The use of probiotics must be better delineated in relation to type of bacteria, dose and length of administration.
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58.
  • Johnson, Louis Banka, et al. (författare)
  • Radiation enteropathy and leucocyte-endothelial cell reactions in a refined small bowel model
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: BMC Surgery. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2482. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Leucocyte recruitment and inflammation are key features of high dose radiation-induced tissue injury. The inflammatory response in the gut may be more pronounced following radiotherapy due to its high bacterial load in comparison to the response in other organs. We designed a model to enable us to study the effects of radiation on leucocyte-endothelium interactions and on intestinal microflora in the murine ileum. This model enables us to study specifically the local effects of radiation therapy. METHOD: A midline laparotomy was performed in male C57/Bl6 mice and a five-centimetre segment of ileum is irradiated using the chamber. Leucocyte responses (rolling and adhesion) were then analysed in ileal venules 2 - 48 hours after high dose irradiation, made possible by an inverted approach using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, intestinal microflora, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and cell histology were analysed. RESULTS: The highest and most reproducible increase in leucocyte rolling was exhibited 2 hours after high dose irradiation whereas leucocyte adhesion was greatest after 16 hours. Radiation reduced the intestinal microflora count compared to sham animals with a significant decrease in the aerobic count after 2 hours of radiation. Further, the total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased significantly after 16 hours. In the radiation groups, the bacterial count showed a progressive increase from 2 to 24 hours after radiation. CONCLUSION: This study presents a refinement of a previous method of examining mechanisms of radiation enteropathy, and a new approach at investigating radiation induced leucocyte responses in the ileal microcirculation. Radiation induced maximum leucocyte rolling at 2 hours and adhesion peaked at 16 hours. It also reduces the microflora count, which then starts to increase steadily afterwards. This model may be instrumental in developing strategies against pathological recruitment of leucocytes and changes in intestinal microflora in the small bowel after radiotherapy.
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