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241.
  • Obon-Santacana, Mireia, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary Intake of Acrylamide and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 24:1, s. 291-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 mu g/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 mu g/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10 mu(g/d), 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.</p>
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242.
  • Orfanos, Philippos, et al. (författare)
  • Eating out of home and its correlates in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 10:12, s. 1515-1525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants. SETTING: Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). SUBJECTS: The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21 733 women, aged 35-74 years. RESULTS: The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets.</p>
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243.
  • Ose, Jennifer, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous androgens and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumor characteristics in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 136:2, s. 399-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of endogenous androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in ovarian carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease and there are no prospective data on endogenous androgens and EOC risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage) or the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis (i.e. type I vs. type II, leading to less or more aggressive tumors). We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort evaluating androgens and SHBG and invasive EOC risk by tumor characteristics. Female participants who provided a blood sample and were not using exogenous hormones at blood donation were eligible (n = 183,257). A total of 565 eligible women developed EOC; two controls (n = 1,097) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models. We observed no association between androgens, SHBG and EOC overall. A doubling of androstenedione reduced risk of serous carcinomas by 21% (odds ratio (OR)log2=0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]=[0.64-0.97]). Moreover, associations differed for low-grade and high-grade carcinomas, with positive associations for low-grade and inverse associations for high-grade carcinomas (e.g. androstenedione: low grade: ORlog2=1.99 [0.98-4.06]; high grade: ORlog2=0.75 [0.61-0.93], p(het)0.01), similar associations were observed for type I/II tumors. This is the first prospective study to evaluate androgens, SHBG and EOC risk by tumor characteristics and type I/II status. Our findings support a possible role of androgens in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional studies exploring this association are needed. What's new? There appear to be several types of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC), and hormone-related risk factors are poorly understood. In this study, the authors found that the impact of endogenous androgens on the risk of developing EOC differed depending upon tumor characteristics. Androgen concentrations were positively associated with the risk of low-grade and type-I carcinomas, but the study found an inverse association for high-grade tumors. These findings support a possible role for androgens in ovarian carcinogenesis, and emphasize the need for additional research.</p>
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244.
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245.
  • Papadimitriou, Nikos, et al. (författare)
  • Burden of hip fracture using disability-adjusted life-years a pooled analysis of prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Public Health. - 2468-2667. ; 2:5, s. E239-E246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: No studies have estimated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures using real-life follow-up cohort data. We aimed to quantify the burden of disease due to incident hip fracture using DALYs in prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium, and to calculate population attributable fractions based on DALYs for specific risk factors.</p><p>Methods: We used data from six cohorts of participants aged 50 years or older at recruitment to calculate DALYs. We applied disability weights proposed by the National OsteoporosisFoundation and did a series of sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of DALY estimates. We calculated population attributable fractions for smoking, body-mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol intake, type 2 diabetes and parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptives in women. We calculated summary risk estimates across cohorts with pooled analysis and random-effects meta-analysis methods.</p><p>Findings: 223 880 men and women were followed up for a mean of 13 years (SD 6). 7724 (3·5%) participants developed an incident hip fracture, of whom 413 (5·3%) died as a result. 5964 DALYs (27 per 1000 individuals) were lost due to hip fractures, 1230 (20·6%) of which were in the group aged 75–79 years. 4150 (69·6%) DALYs were attributed to disability. Current smoking was the risk factor responsible for the greatest hip fracture burden (7·5%, 95% CI 5·2–9·7) followed by physical inactivity (5·5%, 2·1–8·5), history of diabetes (2·8%, 2·1–4·0), and low to average BMI (2·0%, 1·4–2·7), whereas low alcohol consumption (0·01–2·5 g per day) and high BMI had a protective effect.</p><p>Interpretation: Hip fracture can lead to a substantial loss of healthy life-years in elderly people. National public health policies should be strengthened to reduce hip fracture incidence and mortality. Primary prevention measures should be strengthened to prevent falls, and reduce smoking and a sedentary lifestyle.</p>
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246.
  • Papadimitriou, Nikos, et al. (författare)
  • Burden of hip fracture using disability-adjusted life-years: a pooled analysis of prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Public health. - 2468-2667. ; 2:5, s. e239-e246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> No studies have estimated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures using real-life follow-up cohort data. We aimed to quantify the burden of disease due to incident hip fracture using DALYs in prospective cohorts in the CHANCES consortium, and to calculate population attributable fractions based on DALYs for specific risk factors.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> We used data from six cohorts of participants aged 50 years or older at recruitment to calculate DALYs. We applied disability weights proposed by the National Osteoporosis Foundation and did a series of sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of DALY estimates. We calculated population attributable fractions for smoking, body-mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol intake, type 2 diabetes and parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptives in women. We calculated summary risk estimates across cohorts with pooled analysis and random-effects meta-analysis methods.</p><p><strong>FINDINGS:</strong> 223 880 men and women were followed up for a mean of 13 years (SD 6). 7724 (3·5%) participants developed an incident hip fracture, of whom 413 (5·3%) died as a result. 5964 DALYs (27 per 1000 individuals) were lost due to hip fractures, 1230 (20·6%) of which were in the group aged 75-79 years. 4150 (69·6%) DALYs were attributed to disability. Current smoking was the risk factor responsible for the greatest hip fracture burden (7·5%, 95% CI 5·2-9·7) followed by physical inactivity (5·5%, 2·1-8·5), history of diabetes (2·8%, 2·1-4·0), and low to average BMI (2·0%, 1·4-2·7), whereas low alcohol consumption (0·01-2·5 g per day) and high BMI had a protective effect.</p><p><strong>INTERPRETATION:</strong> Hip fracture can lead to a substantial loss of healthy life-years in elderly people. National public health policies should be strengthened to reduce hip fracture incidence and mortality. Primary prevention measures should be strengthened to prevent falls, and reduce smoking and a sedentary lifestyle.</p><p><strong>FUNDING:</strong> European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.</p>
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247.
  • Papadopoulos, Fotios, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring lag and duration effect of sunshine in triggering suicide
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 88:3, s. 287-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong></p><p>Sunshine is considered to have a beneficial impact on mood. Interestingly, it has been consistently found that the incidence of suicide reaches a peak during early summer.</p><p><strong>METHODS: </strong></p><p>In order to explore the pattern of sunshine and suicide risk in a time frame of up to nine days and investigate possible lag and duration parameters of sunshine in the triggering of suicide, Greek daily suicide and solar radiance data were analyzed for a 10-year period using logistic regression models.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p><p>The solar radiance during the day before the suicide event was significantly associated with an increased suicide risk (OR=1.020 per MW/m<sup>2</sup>). The average solar radiance during the four previous days was also significantly associated with an increased suicide risk (OR=1.031 per MW/m<sup>2</sup>). Differences among genders include the longer sunshine exposure needed in males to trigger suicide, compared to females and a lag period of three to four days that was found to lapse in females till the suicide. The increase in suicide risk in June compared to December, attributable to the daily sunshine effect, varies from 52% to 88%, thus explaining the already known suicide monthly seasonality.</p><p><strong>LIMITATIONS:</strong></p><p>No individual data on solar radiance exposure, mental disorders, alcohol consumption or suicide method were available.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong></p><p>The effect of sunshine in the triggering of suicide may be mediated through a mechanism with a specific lag and duration effect, during the nine days preceding suicide. We hypothesize that sunshine acts as a natural antidepressant which first improves motivation, then only later improves mood, thereby creating a potential short-term increased risk of suicide initially upon its application.</p>
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248.
  • Peeters, Petra H. M., et al. (författare)
  • Variations in plasma phytoestrogen concentrations in European adults
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - American Society for Nutrition. - 1541-6100. ; 137:5, s. 1294-1300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary phytoestrogens may play a role in chronic disease occurrence. The aim of our study was to assess the variability of plasma concentrations in European populations. We included 15 geographical regions in 9 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, and UK) and a 16th region, Oxford, UK, where participants were recruited from among vegans and vegetarians. All subjects were participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma concentrations of 3 isoflavones(daidzein, genistein, and glycitein), 2 metabolites of daidzein [O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) and equol] and 2 mammalian lignans enterodiol and enterolactone) were measured in 1414 participants. We computed geometric means for each region and used multivariate regression analysis to assess the influence of region, adjusted for gender, age, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, and laboratory batch. Many subjects had concentrations below the detection limit [0.1 mu g/L (0.4 nmol/L)] for glycitein (80%), O-DMA (73%) and equol (62%). Excluding subjects from Oxford, UK, the highest concentrations of isoflavones were in subjects from the Netherlands and Cambridge, UK [2-6 mu g/L (7-24 nmol/L); P < 0.05], whereas concentrations for lignans were highest in Denmark [8 mu g/L (27 nmol/L); P < 0.05]. Isoflavones varied 8-to 13-fold, whereas lignans varied 4-fold. In the vegetarian/vegan cohort of Oxford, concentrations of isoflavones were 5-50 times higher than in nonvegetarian regions. Region was the most important determinant of plasma concentrations for all 7 phytoestrogens. Despite the fact that plasma concentrations of phytoestrogens in Europe were low compared with Asian populations, they varied substantially among subjects from the 16 different regions.
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