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41.
  • Cao, Yin, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-like growth factor pathway genetic polymorphisms, circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3, and prostate cancer survival
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874. ; 106:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation, but its role in progression remains unknown.METHODS: Among 5887 PCa patients (704 PCa deaths) of European ancestry from seven cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, we conducted Cox kernel machine pathway analysis to evaluate whether 530 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 IGF pathway-related genes were collectively associated with PCa mortality. We also conducted SNP-specific analysis using stratified Cox models adjusting for multiple testing. In 2424 patients (313 PCa deaths), we evaluated the association of prediagnostic circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels and PCa mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided.RESULTS: The IGF signaling pathway was associated with PCa mortality (P = .03), and IGF2-AS and SSTR2 were the main contributors (both P = .04). In SNP-specific analysis, 36 SNPs were associated with PCa mortality with P-trend less than .05, but only three SNPs in the IGF2-AS remained statistically significant after gene-based corrections. Two were in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 1 for rs1004446 and rs3741211), whereas the third, rs4366464, was independent (r(2) = 0.03). The hazard ratios (HRs) per each additional risk allele were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.34; P-trend = .003) for rs3741211 and 1.44 (95% CI = 1.20 to 1.73; P-trend < .001) for rs4366464. rs4366464 remained statistically significant after correction for all SNPs (P-trend.corr = .04). Prediagnostic IGF1 (HRhighest (vs lowest quartile) = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.48 to 1.04) and IGFBP3 (HR = 0.93; 95% Cl = 0.65 to 1.34) levels were not associated with PCa mortality.CONCLUSIONS: The IGF signaling pathway, primarily IGF2-AS and SSTR2 genes, may be important in PCa survival.
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42.
  • Castellsagué, Xavier, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective seroepidemiologic study on the role of Human Papillomavirus and other infections in cervical carcinogenesis: Evidence from the EPIC cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 135:2, s. 440-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate prospectively the association between serological markers of selected infections, including HPV, and risk of developing cervical cancer (CC) and precancer, we performed a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study that included 184 cases of invasive CC (ICC), 425 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 1,218 matched control women. At enrollment participants completed lifestyle questionnaires and provided sera. Subjects were followed-up for a median of 9 years. Immunoassays were used to detect serum antibodies to Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumoniae, L1 proteins of mucosal and cutaneous HPV types, E6/E7 proteins of HPV16/18, as well as to four polyomaviruses. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) [and 95% confidence intervals (CI)] for CIN3/CIS and ICC risk were respectively: 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.8 (1.1-2.7) for L1 seropositivity to any mucosal HPV type, 1.0 (0.4-2.4) and 7.4 (2.8-19.7) for E6 seropositivity to HPV16/18, 1.3 (0.9-1.9) and 2.3 (1.3-4.1) for CT seropositivity, and 1.4 (1.0-2.0) and 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for HHV-2 seropositivity. The highest OR for ICC was observed for HPV16 E6 seropositivity [OR=10.2 (3.3-31.1)]. Increasing number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was associated with increasing risk. Non-STIs were not associated with CC risk. In conclusion, this large prospective study confirms the important role of HPV and a possible contribution of CT and HHV-2 in cervical carcinogenesis. It further identifies HPV16 E6 seropositivity as the strongest marker to predict ICC well before disease development. What's New? Limited data are available from prospective studies concerning the role of past exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) and other infections in cervical carcinogenesis. This study assessed associations between cervical cancer and pre-cancer and serological markers of exposure to mucosal and cutaneous HPVs, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumonia, human herpes virus-2 (HHV-2), and polyomaviruses using a nested case-control design within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Associations were found for mucosal HPVs, CT, and HHV-2. A greater number of sexually transmitted diseases further raised the risk of cervical cancer.
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43.
  • Cerhan, James R., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:11, s. 1233-1238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 x 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 x 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 x 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 x 10(-13) and 3.63 x 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
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44.
  • Christakoudi, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Blood pressure and risk of cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08–1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14–1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07–1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13–1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04–1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01–1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82–1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93–1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.
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45.
  • Chuang, Shu-Chun, et al. (författare)
  • Cellular immune activity biomarker neopterin is associated hyperlipidemia results from a large population-based study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Immunity & Ageing. - 1742-4933. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Increased serum neopterin had been described in older age two decades ago. Neopterin is a biomarker of systemic adaptive immune activation that could be potentially implicated in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Measurements of waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin as components of MetS definition, and plasma total neopterin concentrations were performed in 594 participants recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Results: Higher total neopterin concentrations were associated with reduced HDLC (9.7 %, p < 0.01 for men and 9.2 %, p < 0.01 for women), whereas no association was observed with the rest of the MetS components as well as with MetS overall (per 10 nmol/L: OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 0.85-2.39 for men and OR = 1.38, 95 % CI = 0.79-2.43).Conclusions: These data suggest that high total neopterin concentrations are cross-sectionally associated with reduced HDLC, but not with overall MetS.
46.
  • Chuang, Shu-Chun, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Biomarkers of Tryptophan and the Kynurenine Pathway and Lung Cancer Risk
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 23:3, s. 461-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Imbalances in tryptophan metabolism have been linked to cancer-related immune escape and implicated in several cancers, including lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer andNutrition (EPIC) that included 893 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748matched controls. Circulating levels of tryptophan and six of its metabolites were measured and evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk. Results: Tryptophan (P-trend = 2 Chi 10(-5)) and the kynurenine/ tryptophan ratio (KTR; P-trend 4 Chi 10(-5)) were associated with lung cancer risk overall after adjusting for established risk factors. The ORs comparing the fifth and first quintiles (OR5th (vs. 1st)) were 0.52 [ 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.74] for tryptophan and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.24-2.45) for KTR. After adjusting for plasma methionine (available fromprevious work, which was strongly correlated with tryptophan), the associations of tryptophan (adjusted P-trend 0.13) and KTR (P-trend = 0.009) were substantially attenuated. KTR was positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma, the OR5th vs. 1st being 2.83 (95% CI, 1.62-4.94, P-trend -3 Chi 10(-5)) that was only marginally affected by adjusting for methionine. Conclusions: This study indicates that biomarkers of tryptophan metabolism are associated with subsequent lung cancer risk. Although this result would seem consistent with the immune system having a role in lung cancer development, the overall associations were dependent on methionine, and further studies are warranted to further elucidate the importance of these metabolites in lung cancer etiology. Impact: This is the first prospective study investigating the tryptophan pathway in relation to lung cancer risk.
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47.
  • Chuang, Shu-Chun, et al. (författare)
  • Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 96:1, s. 164-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous studies have shown that high fiber intake is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the association of dietary fiber with specific causes of death other than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,7 I 7 men and women. Design: HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, and, in women, ever use of menopausal hormone therapy. Results: During a mean follow-up of 12.7 y, a total of 23,582 deaths were recorded. Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HRper (10-g/d) (increase): 0.90; 95% Cl: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HRper (10-g/d increase): 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non-smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d. Conclusions: Higher fiber intake is associated with lower mortality, particularly from circulatory, digestive, and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory diseases. Our results support current recommendations of high dietary fiber intake for health maintenance. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:164-74.
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48.
  • Companioni, Osmel, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms of H. pylori signaling pathway genes and gastric cancer risk in the European EPIC-eurgast cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 134:1, s. 92-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori is a recognized causal factor of noncardia gastric cancer (GC). Lipopolysaccaride and peptidoglycan of this bacterium are recognized by CD14, TLR4 and NOD2 human proteins, while NFKB1 activates the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines to elicit an immune response. SNPs in these genes have been associated with GC in different populations. We genotyped 30 SNPs of these genes, in 365 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1284 matched controls from the EPIC cohort. The association with GC and its histological and anatomical subtypes was analyzed by logistic regression and corrected for multiple comparisons. Using a log-additive model we found a significant association between SNPs in CD14, NOD2 and TLR4 with GC risk. However, after applying the multiple comparisons tests only the NOD2 region remained significant (p=0.009). Analysis according to anatomical subtypes revealed NOD2 and NFKB1 SNPs associated with noncardia GC and CD14 SNPs associated with cardia GC, while analysis according to histological subtypes showed that CD14 was associated with intestinal but not diffuse GC. The multiple comparisons tests confirmed the association of NOD2 with noncardia GC (p=0.0003) and CD14 with cardia GC (p=0.01). Haplotype analysis was in agreement with single SNP results for NOD2 and CD14 genes. From these results we conclude that genetic variation in NOD2 associates with noncardia GC while variation in CD14 is associated with cardia GC.
49.
  • Cox, David G., et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive analysis of the androgen receptor gene and risk of breast cancer: results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 8:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Androgens have been hypothesised to influence risk of breast cancer through several possible mechanisms, including their conversion to estradiol or their binding to the oestrogen receptor and/ or androgen receptor ( AR) in the breast. Here, we report on the results of a large and comprehensive study of the association between genetic variation in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium ( BPC3). Methods The underlying genetic variation was determined by first sequencing the coding regions of the AR gene in a panel of 95 advanced breast cancer cases. Second, a dense set of markers from the public database was genotyped in a panel of 349 healthy women. The linkage disequilibrium relationships ( blocks) across the gene were then identified, and haplotypetagging single nucleotide polymorphisms ( htSNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across the locus. The htSNPs were then genotyped in the nested breast cancer cases and controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Multiethnic Cohort, Nurses' Health Study, and Women's Health Study cohorts ( 5,603 breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls). Results We found no association between any genetic variation ( SNP, haplotype, or the exon 1 CAG repeat) in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer, nor were any statistical interactions with known breast cancer risk factors observed. Conclusion Among postmenopausal Caucasian women, common variants of the AR gene are not associated with risk of breast cancer.
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50.
  • Cox, David G, et al. (författare)
  • Haplotypes of the estrogen receptor beta gene and breast cancer risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 122:2, s. 387-392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to exogenous (oral contraceptives, postmenopausal hormone therapy) and endogenous (number of ovulatory cycles, adiposity) steroid hormones is associated with breast cancer risk. Breast cancer risk associated with these exposures could hypothetically be modified by genes in the steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and signaling pathways. Estrogen receptors are the first step along the path of signaling cell growth and development upon stimulation with estrogens. The National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium has systematically selected haplotype tagging SNPs in genes along the steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism and binding pathways, including the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene. Four htSNPs tag the 6 major (>5% frequency) haplotypes of the ESR2 gene. These polymorphisms have been genotyped in 5,789 breast cancer cases and 7,761 controls nested within the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Multiethnic Cohort, Nurses' Health Study and Women's Health Study cohorts. None of the SNPs were independently associated with breast cancer risk. One haplotype of the ESR2 gene was associated with breast cancer risk before correction for multiple testing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28, p = 0.0007). This haplotype remained associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for multiple testing using a permutation procedure. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in SNP or haplotype odds ratios across cohorts. These data suggest that inherited variants in ESR2 (while possibly conferring a small increased risk of breast cancer) are not associated with appreciable (OR > 1.2) changes in breast cancer risk among Caucasian women.
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