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Sökning: WFRF:(Waldemar Gunhild)

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  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Jokinen, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal cognitive decline in subcortical ischemic vascular disease--the LADIS Study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland). - 1421-9786. ; 27:4, s. 384-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD), as defined according to imaging criteria, is associated with a specific clinical and cognitive profile. Much less is known about the long-term cognitive consequences of SIVD. The aim of the study was to investigate the longitudinal cognitive performance and incident dementia in subjects with and without SIVD in a sample of older adults with white matter lesions. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study, 639 participants were examined with annual clinical and neuropsychological evaluations for 3 years. The subjects meeting the MRI criteria of SIVD at baseline were compared to the other subjects of the sample with linear mixed models. RESULTS: The overall level of cognitive performance over the follow-up period was inferior in multiple cognitive domains in SIVD subjects as compared to the reference group. The subjects with SIVD presented significantly steeper decline of performance in the Stroop test (parts I and II), Trail Making A test, Verbal fluency test, and Mini-Mental State Examination. They also had a threefold risk of developing dementia during follow-up independently of age, sex, education and medial temporal lobe atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: SIVD, as a manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease, is related to progressive cognitive impairment and a considerable risk of developing dementia. SIVD seems to specifically contribute to the deterioration of psychomotor speed, executive control, and global cognitive function.
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12.
  • Jokinen, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • MRI-defined subcortical ischemic vascular disease: baseline clinical and neuropsychological findings. The LADIS Study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland). - 1421-9786. ; 27:4, s. 336-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) is a common, but often overlooked cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Diagnostic research criteria for SIVD are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings including substantial white matter lesions (WML) and multiple lacunar infarcts. Empirical studies validating these imaging criteria are still few. The purpose of the study was to describe the clinical and cognitive characteristics of the MRI-defined SIVD in a mixed sample of functionally independent elderly subjects with WML. METHODS: The subjects of the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study, aged 65-84 years, underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological examinations, and brain MRI at the baseline assessment. The subjects meeting the SIVD imaging criteria (n = 89) were compared to the other subjects of the sample (n = 524). RESULTS: SIVD was associated with lower education, hypertension and, independently, with obesity. The subjects with SIVD had more often motor impairment, a history of falls, and subtle impairment in activities of daily living, but they did not differ for depressive symptoms. SIVD subjects performed significantly inferiorly in tests of global cognitive function, psychomotor speed, attention and executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory. CONCLUSION: In this population of nondisabled older adults with WML, SIVD was related to specific clinical and functional characteristics. Neuropsychological features included psychomotor slowing as well as deficits in attention and executive functions.
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13.
  • Jönsson, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of costs of care for patients with Alzheimer's disease
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - 0885-6230 .- 1099-1166. ; 21:5, s. 449-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is a major cause of disability and care burden in the elderly. This study aims to estimate the costs of formal and informal care and identity determinants of care costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-two (AD) patients and their caregivers were recruited among patients attending regular visits at six memory clinic in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. Patients with a diagnosis of AD and with an identifiable primary caregiver were eligible for inclusion. Data was collected by questionnaires at baseline, and at scheduled follow-up visits after 6 months and again after 12 months. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and behavioural disturbances were measured using a brief version of the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). RESULTS: Total annual costs were on average 172,000 SEK, ranging from 60,700 SEK in mild dementia to 375,000 SEK in severe dementia. Costs for community care (special accommodation, home help, etc.) constituted about half of total costs of care and increase sharply with increasing cognitive impairment. Informal care costs, valued at the opportunity cost of the caregiver's time, make up about a third of total costs and also increased significantly with disease severity. Medical care costs (inpatient care, outpatient care, pharmaceuticals), on the other hand, were not significantly related to disease severity. Regression analysis confirmed a strong association between costs and cognitive function, between patients as well as within patients over time. There was also a significant influence on costs from behavioural disturbances. Sensitivity analysis showed that the method chosen to value informal care can have considerable impact on results. CONCLUSIONS: Costs of care in patient with AD are high and related to dementia severity as well as presence of behavioural disturbances. The cost estimates presented have implications for future economic evaluation of treatments for Alzheimer's disease.
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14.
  • Jönsson, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Patient- and proxy-reported utility in Alzheimer disease using the EuroQoL
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. - 0893-0341 .- 1546-4156. ; 20:1, s. 49-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aims to compare patient- and proxy-rated utilities and health-related quality of life from individuals in different stages of Alzheimer disease (AD). Two hundred seventy-two patients and their primary caregivers were enrolled in a prospective observational study and underwent three consecutive interviews, 6 months apart. Average Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were 19.3, 18.0, and 16.4 at the three interviews; scores ranged from 0 to 30. Using the EuroQoL EQ-5D instrument, patient-rated health utilities were on average 0.833 with little variation across MMSE-based severity levels. Proxy-rated health utilities were 0.69 (MMSE >25), 0.64 (MMSE 21-25), 0.50 (MMSE 15-20), 0.49 (MMSE 10-14), and 0.33 (MMSE <10). Proxy-rated utilities, as well as changes in utilities over time, were significantly related to MMSE scores and inversely related to scores on a brief version of the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and institutionalization. Utilities were highly correlated with the disease-specific quality of life instrument QoL-AD. The study shows that the EuroQoL can be used to rate utilities in Alzheimer disease, but there are important differences between patient- and proxy-ratings.
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16.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 913-924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Methods: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. Results: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aβ+ cognitively normal and Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment (P <.05) but not in Aβ+ AD dementia (P =.66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. Discussion: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aβ pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.
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17.
  • Miller, Anne-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Current Approaches and Clinician Attitudes to the Use of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Diagnostic Evaluation of Dementia in Europe.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1875-8908. ; 60:1, s. 201-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BIOMARKAPD seeks to diminish the barriers associated with the clinical use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis by reducing variation in CSF laboratory methodologies and generating consensus recommendations on their clinical interpretation and application for dementia diagnosis.To examine the disparity in practitioner attitudes and clinical practice relating to the use of CSF biomarkers for dementia diagnosis across Europe.Clinical dementia experts were surveyed on the prevalence of national consensus guidelines and analytical reimbursement across Europe, their biomarker platform preferences, lumbar puncture methodologies and application of reference values and cut-offs for CSF analysis.74% of respondents (total n = 51) use CSF biomarkers in clinical practice and 69% perform lumbar punctures on an outpatient basis. Most use CSF biomarkers to diagnose atypical (84%) and early-onset cases of cognitive impairment (71%) and for the differential diagnosis of other dementias (69%). 82% state they are sufficiently informed about CSF biomarkers yet 61% report a lack of national consensus guidelines on their use for dementia diagnosis. 48% of countries represented do not reimburse clinical CSF analysis costs. 43% report using normal reference ranges derived from publications.Variations in attitude and practice relating to CSF biomarkers, widely recognised as barriers to their clinical acceptance, remain evident within and between countries across Europe, even in expert centres. These shortcomings must be addressed by developing consensus guidelines on CSF-related methodologies and their clinical application, to further their use for the diagnostic evaluation of dementia.
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19.
  • Pantoni, Leonardo, et al. (författare)
  • Leukoaraiosis predicts hidden global functioning impairment in nondisabled older people: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) Study.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614. ; 54:7, s. 1095-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether leukoaraiosis severity is independently associated with differences in global functioning in nondisabled elderly patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis from an ongoing longitudinal multicenter and multinational study. SETTING: The Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, a collaboration aimed at assessing leukoaraiosis as an independent predictor of the transition to disability in older people. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred thirty-nine nondisabled subjects (288 men, 351 women, mean age+/-standard deviation 74.1+/-5.0) with magnetic resonance imaging-detected leukoaraiosis of different severity and presenting with one of the following: mild cognitive or motor disturbances, minor cerebrovascular events, or mood alterations or in whom leukoaraiosis was incidentally identified. MEASUREMENTS: Centralized assessment of leukoaraiosis severity according to the three severity degrees of the Fazekas scale; Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) Scale for measurement of global functioning. RESULTS: At baseline, 44% of participants had a mild, 31% a moderate, and 25% a severe degree of leukoaraiosis. A significant trend toward declining performance on the DAD Scale was apparent with increasing leukoaraiosis score severity (total score=98.8, 98.6, 97.5, respectively, in the three leukoaraiosis categories, analysis of variance P=.002). Similar trends were obtained for basic (P=.01) and instrumental (P<.001) function items. The statistical significance of these differences was confirmed in a multiple linear regression analysis correcting for numerous factors known to influence disability in older people. Executive function test performance declined along with increasing leukoaraiosis severity and was significantly related to DAD total score. CONCLUSION: Even in nondisabled elderly patients, levels of functional ability are related to white matter lesion severity. Executive dysfunction may mediate this relationship.
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20.
  • Poggesi, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary complaints in nondisabled elderly people with age-related white matter changes: the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - 1532-5415. ; 56:9, s. 1638-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in a cohort of nondisabled elderly people, the association between urinary complaints and severity of age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis from a longitudinal multinational study. SETTING: The Leukoaraiosis And DISability Study, assessing ARWMC as an independent predictor of the transition from functional autonomy to disability in elderly subjects. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects (288 men, 351 women, mean age 74.1+/-5.0) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected ARWMC of different severity. MEASUREMENTS: ARWMC severity was graded on MRI as mild, moderate, and severe (Fazekas scale). MRI assessment also included ARWMC volumetric analysis and the count of infarcts. Urinary complaints (nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence) were recorded based on subjects' answers to four questions. RESULTS: In comparing the three ARWMC severity groups, there was a significant difference only in prevalence of urgency, with 16% of subjects in the mild severity group, 17% in the moderate severity group, and 25% in the severe group (P=.03). Adjusting for age, sex, lacunar and nonlacunar infarcts, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics, severe ARWMC retained an independent effect in the association with urinary urgency (odds ratio=1.74, 95% confidence interval=1.04-2.90, severe vs mild group). Subjects with urinary urgency also had higher ARWMC volumes (25.2, vs 20.4 mm(3) in those without urinary urgency; P<.001). Urgency was confirmed to be associated with the severe degree of ARWMC, irrespective of complaints of memory, gait disturbances, or history of depression. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of nondisabled elderly people, severe ARWMC were associated with urinary urgency, independent of other potential confounders and vascular lesions of the brain.
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