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Sökning: WFRF:(Whitfield John B.)

  • Resultat 31-40 av 42
  • Föregående 123[4]5Nästa
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31.
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32.
  • Jeppsson, Jan-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: I. Analyte definition and proposal of a candidate reference method.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : De Gruyter. - 1434-6621. ; 45:4, s. 558-562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An alcohol-associated change in the serum transferrin glycoform pattern, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), is used as a biomarker of chronic moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. A current limitation in CDT analysis is the lack of standardization, which hampers clinical and analytical comparison between studies. This situation prompted initiation of a Working Group (WG) on CDT Standardization under the auspices of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC). The standardization work aims to define and validate the analyte, select a reference method, work out procedures for the production of reference materials, and make suggestions for the clinical usage of CDT. The first recommendation of the WG is that disialotransferrin should be the primary target molecule for CDT measurement and the single analyte on which CDT standardization is based. It is further recommended that HPLC should be the analytical principle considered as the basis of an interim reference method until a suitable mass spectrometric reference method is established. In clinical use, CDT should be expressed in a relative amount (% CDT), to compensate for variations in the total transferrin concentration.
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33.
  • Mahajan, Anubha, et al. (författare)
  • Trans-ethnic Fine Mapping Highlights Kidney-Function Genes Linked to Salt Sensitivity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 99:3, s. 636-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed genome-wide association studies (GWASs), including data from 71,638 individuals from four ancestries, for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function used to define chronic kidney disease (CKD). We identified 20 loci attaining genome-wide-significant evidence of association (p < 5 × 10(-8)) with kidney function and highlighted that allelic effects on eGFR at lead SNPs are homogeneous across ancestries. We leveraged differences in the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between diverse populations to fine-map the 20 loci through construction of "credible sets" of variants driving eGFR association signals. Credible variants at the 20 eGFR loci were enriched for DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) in human kidney cells. DHS credible variants were expression quantitative trait loci for NFATC1 and RGS14 (at the SLC34A1 locus) in multiple tissues. Loss-of-function mutations in ancestral orthologs of both genes in Drosophila melanogaster were associated with altered sensitivity to salt stress. Renal mRNA expression of Nfatc1 and Rgs14 in a salt-sensitive mouse model was also reduced after exposure to a high-salt diet or induced CKD. Our study (1) demonstrates the utility of trans-ethnic fine mapping through integration of GWASs involving diverse populations with genomic annotation from relevant tissues to define molecular mechanisms by which association signals exert their effect and (2) suggests that salt sensitivity might be an important marker for biological processes that affect kidney function and CKD in humans.
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34.
  • Morris, Andrew P, et al. (författare)
  • Trans-ethnic kidney function association study reveals putative causal genes and effects on kidney-specific disease aetiologies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.
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35.
  • Schellenberg, François, et al. (författare)
  • IFCC approved HPLC reference measurement procedure for the alcohol consumption biomarker carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) : Its validation and use
  • Ingår i: Clinica Chimica Acta. - : Elsevier. - 0009-8981 .- 1873-3492. ; 465, s. 91-100
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is used as a biomarker of sustained high alcohol consumption. The currently available measurement procedures for CDT are based on various analytical techniques (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, nephelometry), some differing in the definition of the analyte and using different reference intervals and cut-off values. The Working Group on Standardization of CDT (WG-CDT), initiated by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), has validated an HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure (cRMP) for CDT (% disialotransferrin to total transferrin based on peak areas), demonstrating that it is suitable as a reference measurement procedure (RMP) for CDT. Presented is a detailed description of the cRMP and its calibration. Practical aspects on how to treat genetic variant and so-called di-tri bridge samples are described. Results of method performance characteristics, as demanded by ISO 15189 and ISO 15193, are given, as well as the reference interval and measurement uncertainty and how to deal with that in routine use. The correlation of the cRMP with commercial CDT procedures and the performance of the cRMP in a network of laboratories are also presented. The performance of the CDT cRMP in combination with previously developed commutable calibrators allows for standardization of the currently available commercial measurement procedures for CDT. The cRMP has recently been approved by the IFCC and will be from now on be known as the IFCC-RMP for CDT, while CDT results standardized according to this RMP should be indicated as CDTIFCC.
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36.
  • Silventoinen, Karri, et al. (författare)
  • The CODATwins Project : The Cohort Description of Collaborative Project of Development of Anthropometrical Measures in Twins to Study Macro-Environmental Variation in Genetic and Environmental Effects on Anthropometric Traits
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 18:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
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37.
  • Surakka, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • A Genome-Wide Association Study of Monozygotic Twin-Pairs Suggests a Locus Related to Variability of Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 15:6, s. 691-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association analysis on monozygotic twin-pairs offers a route to discovery of gene-environment interactions through testing for variability loci associated with sensitivity to individual environment/lifestyle. We present a genome-wide scan of loci associated with intra-pair differences in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, rs2483058 in an intron of SRGAP2, where twins carrying the C allele are more sensitive to environmental factors (P = 3.98 × 10-8). We followed up the association in further genotyped monozygotic twins (N = 1,261), which showed a moderate association for the variant (P = 0.200, same direction of an effect). In addition, we report a new association on the level of apolipoprotein A-II (P = 4.03 × 10-8).
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38.
  • Weykamp, Cas, et al. (författare)
  • Harmonization of Measurement Results of the Alcohol Biomarker Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin by Use of the Toolbox of Technical Procedures of the International Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 60:7, s. 945-953
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The need for equivalent results of routine measurement procedures for the alcohol biomarker carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been recognized by the IFCC. This article describes a project to harmonize CDT as conducted by an IFCC working group initiated for this purpose. METHODS: We used procedures for achieving harmonization as developed by the Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to assess the suitability of a candidate reference measurement procedure (cRMP), candidate reference materials (cRMs), and the success of efforts to achieve harmonization. RESULTS: CDT measurement procedures in routine use showed good reproducibility (CV 1.1%-2.8%) and linearity (r > 0.990) with variable slopes (0.766 - 1.065) and intercepts (-0.34 to 0.92) compared to the cRMP. Heterogeneity after simulated harmonization was 4.7%. cRMs of frozen human native sera demonstrated commutability and 3-year stability for routine measurement procedures. The cRMP provided reproducible value assignment to cRMs with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 0.03% at the 1.2% CDT level and 0.06% at the 4.4% CDT level. Harmonization efforts reduced the intermeasurement CV from 8.8% to 3.4%, allowed 99% recovery of the values assigned with the cRMP, and demonstrated 99% of results within the desirable allowable total error. Harmonization was less successful in samples with low CDT and high trisialo-transferrin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Harmonization of CDT is possible with frozen human native sera as cRMs with values assigned by use of the cRMP. We propose the cRMP as a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure and cRMs as candidate international calibrators. (C) 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
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39.
  • Weykamp, Cas, et al. (författare)
  • Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: III. Performance of native serum and serum spiked with disialotransferrin proves that harmonization of CDT assays is possible
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : De Gruyter. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 51:5, s. 991-996
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a generic term that refers to the transferrin glycoforms whose concentration in blood is temporarily increased by sustained alcohol consumption. Due to high clinical specificity, CDT was proposed as a biomarker of heavy alcohol use and has been available for about 20 years. A number of methods have been developed for CDT measurement based on different analytical techniques and principles and without any harmonization or calibration to a reference method. As a consequence, neither the reference limits nor the cut-off values have been similar across assays, hampering understanding of the diagnostic value of CDT and its routine use. This prompted the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) to initiate a Working Group on Standardization of CDT (WG-CDT). This third publication of the WG-CDT is devoted to testing the commutability of native and disialotransferrin-spiked serum panels as candidate secondary reference materials, in order to prove the harmonization potential of commercial CDT methods. The results showed that assay harmonization reduced the inter-laboratory imprecision in a network of reference laboratories running the HPLC candidate reference method. In the seven commercial methods evaluated in this study, the use of multi-level secondary calibrators of human serum origin significantly reduced the between-method imprecision. Thus, harmonization of CDT measurements by different methods can be achieved using this calibration system, opening the way for a full standardization of commercial methods against a reference method by use of certified reference materials.
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40.
  • Benyamin, Beben, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of novel loci affecting circulating chromogranins and related peptides
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 26:1, s. 233-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chromogranins are pro-hormone secretory proteins released from neuroendocrine cells, with effects on control of blood pressure. We conducted a genome-wide association study for plasma catestatin, the catecholamine release inhibitory peptide derived from chromogranin A (CHGA), and other CHGA- or chromogranin B (CHGB)-related peptides, in 545 US and 1252 Australian subjects. This identified loci on chromosomes 4q35 and 5q34 affecting catestatin concentration (P = 3.40 × 10(-30) for rs4253311 and 1.85 × 10(-19) for rs2731672, respectively). Genes in these regions include the proteolytic enzymes kallikrein (KLKB1) and Factor XII (F12). In chromaffin cells, CHGA and KLKB1 proteins co-localized in catecholamine storage granules. In vitro, kallikrein cleaved recombinant human CHGA to catestatin, verified by mass spectrometry. The peptide identified from this digestion (CHGA360-373) selectively inhibited nicotinic cholinergic stimulated catecholamine release from chromaffin cells. A proteolytic cascade involving kallikrein and Factor XII cleaves chromogranins to active compounds both in vivo and in vitro.
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  • Resultat 31-40 av 42
  • Föregående 123[4]5Nästa
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