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Sökning: WFRF:(Willett Walter)

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21.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of the major carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO, Qual Life, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, NL-3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutrit Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveillance Res, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Maastricht Univ, NUTRIM, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. : WILEY. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 119:9, s. 2148-2154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carotenoids, found in fruits and vegetables, have the potential to protect against cancer because of their properties, including their functions as precursors to vitamin A and as antioxidants. We examined the associations between intakes of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin and lycopene and the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. The primary data from 10 prospective cohort studies in North America and Europe were analyzed and then pooled. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline in each study. Study-specific relative risks (RR) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then combined using a random-effects model. Among 521,911 women, 2,012 cases of ovarian cancer occurred during a follow-up of 7-22 years across studies. The major carotenoids were not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. The pooled multivariate RRs (95% confidence intervals) were 1.00 (0.95-1.05) for a 600 mu g/day increase in alpha-carotene intake, 0.96 (0.93-1.03) for a 2,500 mu g/day increase in beta-carotene intake, 0.99 (0.97-1.02) for a 100 mu g/day increase in beta-cryptoxanthin intake, 0.98 (0.94-1.03) for a 2,500 mu g/day increase in lutein/zeaxanthin intake and 1.01 (0.97-1.05) for a 4,000 mu g/day increase in lycopene intake. These associations did not appreciably differ by study (p-values, tests for between-studies heterogeneity > 0.17). Also, the observed associations did not vary substantially by subgroups of the population or by histological type of ovarian cancer. These results suggest that consumption of the major carotenoids during adulthood does not play a major role in the incidence of ovarian cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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22.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Natl Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Dept Hlth & Hlth Serv, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norriss Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Nutr & Toxicol Res Inst, Maastricht, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveillance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Dept Urol, Jacksonville, FL USA. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:10, s. 801-810
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been inconsistent in case-control studies. An inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been suggested in a few prospective studies, but each of these studies included a small number of cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies that included 530469 women and 229575 men with maximum follow-up times of 7-20 years. All participants had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1430 (711 women and 719 men) cases of incident renal cell cancer were identified. The study-standardized incidence rates of renal cell cancer were 23 per 100000 person-years among nondrinkers and 15 per 100000 person-years among those who drank 15 g/day or more of alcohol. Compared with non-drinking, alcohol consumption (>= 15 g/day, equivalent to slightly more than one alcoholic drink per day) was associated with a decreased risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariable RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.60 to 0.86; P-trend <.001); statistically significant inverse trends with increasing intake were seen in both women and men. No difference by sex was observed (P-heterogeneity = .89). Associations between alcohol intake and renal cell cancer were not statistically different across alcoholic beverage type (beer versus wine versus liquor) (P = .40). Conclusion Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer among both women and men in this pooled analysis.
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23.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Fat, Protein, and Meat Consumption and Renal Cell Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:23, s. 1695-1706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results of several case-control studies suggest that high consumption of meat (all meat, red meat, or processed meat) is associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer, but only a few prospective studies have examined the associations of intakes of meat, fat, and protein with renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies that included 530 469 women and 244 483 men and had follow-up times of up to 7-20 years to examine associations between meat, fat, and protein intakes and the risk of renal cell cancer. All participants had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at study entry. Using the primary data from each study, we calculated the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer by using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled these RRs by using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 1478 incident cases of renal cell cancer were identified (709 in women and 769 in men). We observed statistically significant positive associations or trends in pooled age-adjusted models for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, total protein, and animal protein. However, these associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol intake. For example, the pooled age-adjusted RR of renal cell cancer for the highest vs the lowest quintile of intake for total fat was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.56; P-trend = .001) and for total protein was 1.17 (95% CI = 0.99 to 1.38; P-trend = .02). By comparison, the pooled multivariable RR for the highest vs the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.32; P-trend = .31) and of total protein intake was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.26; P-trend = .37). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, poultry, or seafood were not associated with the risk of renal cell cancer. Intakes of fat and protein or their subtypes, red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood are not associated with risk of renal cell cancer.
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24.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 121:10, s. 2246-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Specific beverage intake may be associated with the risk of renal cell cancer through a diluting effect of carcinogens, alterations of hormone levels, or other changes in the renal tubular environment, but few prospective studies have examined these associations. We evaluated the associations between coffee, tea, milk, soda and fruit and vegetable juice intakes and renal cell cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies (530,469 women and 244,483 men). Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) were calculated and then pooled using a random effects model. A total of 1,478 incident renal cell cancer cases were identified during a follow-up of 7-20 years across studies. Coffee consumption was associated with a modestly lower risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariate RR for 3 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus less than one 8 oz (237 ml) cup/day = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.05; p value, test for trend = 0.22). Tea consumption was also inversely associated with renal cell cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR for 1 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus nondrinkers = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.71-1.02; pvalue, test for trend = 0.04). No clear associations were observed for milk, soda or juice. Our findings provide strong evidence that neither coffee nor tea consumption increases renal cell cancer risk. Instead, greater consumption of coffee and tea may be associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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25.
  • Mannisto, Satu, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki 00300, Finland. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Maastricht, Netherlands. Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Rochester, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Univ Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Boston, MA 02115 USA. TNO Qual Life, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 165:3, s. 246-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in each study. During 6-20 years of follow-up between 1980 and 2003, 7,885 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed among 702,647 participants. The authors calculated study-specific multivariate relative risks and then combined them using a random-effects model. In general, intakes of specific carotenoids were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. The pooled multivariate relative risks of colorectal cancer comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest ranged from 0.92 for lutein + zeaxanthin to 1.04 for lycopene; only for lutein + zeaxanthin intake was the result borderline statistically significant (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00). The associations observed were generally similar across studies, for both sexes, and for colon cancer and rectal cancer. These pooled data did not suggest that carotenoids play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.
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26.
  • Marklund, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:21, s. 2422-2436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.Methods:We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available).Results:In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships.Conclusions:In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.
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27.
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
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28.
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29.
  • Mondul, Alison M., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D-Associated Genetic Variation and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 24:3, s. 627-630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified SNPs in or near four genes related to circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration. To examine the hypothesized inverse relationship between vitamin D status and breast cancer, we studied the associations between SNPs in these genes and breast cancer risk in a large pooled study of 9,456 cases and 10,816 controls from six cohorts. Methods: SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25 (OH) D were genotyped and examined both individually and as a 4-SNP polygenic score. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the genetic variants and risk of breast cancer. Results: We found no association between any of the four SNPs or their polygenic score and breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between vitamin D status, as reflected by 25(OH) D-related genotypes, and breast cancer risk. Impact: These findings may contribute to future meta-analyses and scientific review articles, and provide new data about the association between vitamin D-related genes and breast cancer.
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30.
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