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Sökning: WFRF:(Willett Walter)

  • Resultat 61-69 av 69
  • Föregående 123456[7]
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61.
  • Schumacher, Fredrick R., et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive analysis of common IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genetic variation with prospective IGF-I and IGFBP-3 blood levels and prostate cancer risk among
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 19:15, s. 3089-3101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been implicated in prostate development and carcinogenesis. We conducted a comprehensive analysis, utilizing a resequencing and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach, between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGF binding protein (BP) 1, and IGFBP3 genes with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 blood levels, and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, among Caucasians in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We genotyped 14 IGF1 SNPs and 16 IGFBP1/IGFBP3 SNPs to capture common [minor allele frequency (MAF) >= 5%] variation among Caucasians. For each SNP, we assessed the geometric mean difference in IGF blood levels (N = 5684) across genotypes and the association with PCa risk (6012 PCa cases/6641 controls). We present two-sided statistical tests and correct for multiple comparisons. A non-synonymous IGFBP3 SNP in exon 1, rs2854746 (Gly32Ala), was associated with IGFBP-3 blood levels (P-adj = 8.8 x 10(-43)) after adjusting for the previously established IGFBP3 promoter polymorphism A-202C (rs2854744); IGFBP-3 blood levels were 6.3% higher for each minor allele. For IGF1 SNP rs4764695, the risk estimates among heterozygotes was 1.01 (99% CI: 0.90-1.14) and 1.20 (99% CI: 1.06-1.37) for variant homozygotes with overall PCa risk. The corrected allelic P-value was 8.7 x 10(-3). IGF-I levels were significantly associated with PCa risk (P-trend = 0.02) with a 21% increase of PCa risk when compared with the highest quartile to the lowest quartile. We have identified SNPs significantly associated with IGFBP-3 blood levels, but none of these alter PCa risk; however, a novel IGF1 SNP, not associated with IGF-I blood levels, shows preliminary evidence for association with PCa risk among Caucasians.
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62.
  • Smith-Warner, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies - The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. NCI, Nutr Epidemiol Branch, Bethesda, MD USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norris Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. NCI, Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO Qual Life, Dept Epidemiol, Zeist, Netherlands. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveilliance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY USA. NYU, Sch Med, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 163:11, s. 1053-1064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer, begun in 1991. In the Pooling Project, the primary data from prospective cohort studies meeting prespecified inclusion criteria are analyzed using standardized criteria for modeling of exposure, confounding, and outcome variables. In addition to evaluating main exposure-disease associations, analyses are also conducted to evaluate whether exposure-disease associations are modified by other dietary and nondietary factors or vary among population subgroups or particular cancer subtypes. Study-specific relative risks are calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random- or mixed-effects model. The study-specific estimates are weighted by the inverse of their variances in forming summary estimates. Most of the methods used in the Pooling Project may be adapted for examining associations with dietary and nondietary factors in pooled analyses of case-control studies or case-control and cohort studies combined.
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63.
  • Springmann, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 562:7728, s. 519-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50-90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity. We analyse several options for reducing the environmental effects of the food system, including dietary changes towards healthier, more plant-based diets, improvements in technologies and management, and reductions in food loss and waste. We find that no single measure is enough to keep these effects within all planetary boundaries simultaneously, and that a synergistic combination of measures will be needed to sufficiently mitigate the projected increase in environmental pressures.
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64.
  • Torres, Roxana, et al. (författare)
  • Lifestyle modification intervention for overweight and obese Hispanic pregnant women : Development, implementation, lessons learned and future applications
  • Ingår i: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. - : Elsevier Inc.. - 2451-8654. ; 3, s. 111-116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To describe the development, implementation and lessons learned of lifestyle intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain among Hispanic pregnant women. Design The intervention was informed by an empowerment oriented theoretical framework, and targeted women in the Pregnancy and Early Life Improvement Study. Methods The nutrition component consisted of recommendations for total calories, food quantity and improving carbohydrate and fat quality. We provided brown rice, omega-3 rich vegetable oil and spread, and water monthly. The physical activity focused on limiting sedentary behavior and promoting regular movement. The intervention was delivered through individual and group sessions and phone calls. Participants set their own goals, which were closely monitored. The intervention was evaluated extracting data from participant's record (attendance, goals, and challenges) and using a questionnaire. Results Participants were from underserved communities with economic, time, cultural and social barriers for engaging in lifestyle interventions. Modifications were done to facilitate participation, such as coordinating sessions with prenatal appointments and reducing group size and duration of sessions. Weekly text messages were added to reinforce the intervention. The main goal chosen by participants was reduction of sweetened beverages. The greatest challenges were replacing white rice with brown rice and improving physical activity. Participants suggested conducting sessions near their community and using social media as a motivation tool. Main outcomes results will be published elsewhere. Conclusion We identified barriers to delivering the lifestyle intervention, mainly related to group session's participation. Sessions should be conducted in the community, using text messages and social media as reinforcement. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01771133.
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65.
  • Trak-Fellermeier, María A., et al. (författare)
  • Pearls randomized lifestyle trial in pregnant hispanic women with overweight/obesity : Gestational weight gain and offspring birthweight
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. - : Dove Medical Press Ltd.. - 1178-7007. ; 12, s. 225-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) has been associated with adverse perinatal events. High rates of GWG have been reported among Hispanic women. Observational studies indicate that dietary and physical activity interventions during the prenatal period may improve maternal and infant health, but very few randomized trials have been conducted among high-risk overweight/obese Hispanic women. Accordingly, we conducted a lifestyle intervention among high-risk pregnant women and evaluated its impact on achieving appropriate GWG and on improving birthweight. Methods: Eligible overweight/obese women presenting at the University Hospital in Puerto Rico with a singleton pregnancy before 16 gestational weeks were recruited and randomized to lifestyle intervention (n=15) or control group (n=16). The lifestyle intervention focused on improving physical activity and diet quality and optimizing caloric intake. We evaluated the impact of the lifestyle intervention on achieving appropriate GWG and on infant birthweight. Poisson and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The primary intent to treat analysis showed no significant effect on achievement of appropriate GWG/week through 36 weeks in the intervention group (4/15 women) when compared with the control group (3/16 women) (adjusted incidence rate ratio =1.14; 95% CI: 0.20, 6.67). Although not statistically significant, women in the intervention group (6/15) were 1.7 times more likely to achieve appropriate weekly GWG until delivery when compared with controls (4/16 women) (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.67; 95% CI: 0.40, 6.94). We observed lower adjusted birthweight-for-length z-scores in the intervention compared with the control group among male newborns with z-score difference −1.74 (−3.04, −0.43), but not among females −0.83 (−3.85, 2.19). These analyses were adjusted for age and baseline body mass index. Conclusion: Although larger studies are required to determine whether women with obesity may benefit from prenatal lifestyle interventions targeting GWG, our results are suggestive of the intervention improving adherence to established Institute of Medicine guidelines.
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66.
  • Tsilidis, Konstantinos K., et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Hoboken, NJ, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 133:2, s. 495-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested casecontrol studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p<0.01), but not with IGFBP-3 concentrations (p>0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p>0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.
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67.
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68.
  • Wilson, Kathryn M., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of a food frequency questionnaire measurement of dietary acrylamide intake using hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 20:3, s. 269-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-heat cooking of many common foods. The validity of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measures of acrylamide intake has not been established. We assessed the validity of acrylamide intake calculated from an FFQ using a biomarker of acrylamide exposure. METHODS: We calculated acrylamide intake from an FFQ in the Nurses' Health Study II. We measured hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite, glycidamide, in a random sample of 342 women. Correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between acrylamide intakes and adducts. RESULTS: The correlation between acrylamide intake and the sum of acrylamide and glycidamide adducts was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.20-0.41), adjusted for laboratory batch, energy intake, and age. Further adjustment for BMI, alcohol intake, and correction for random within-person measurement error in adducts gave a correlation of 0.34 (CI: 0.23-0.45). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the sum of adducts was 0.77 in blood samples collected 1-3 years apart in a subset of 45 women. Intake of several foods significantly predicted adducts in multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: Acrylamide intake and hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide were moderately correlated. Within-person consistency in adducts was high over time.
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69.
  • Wolk, Alicja, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective study of association of monounsaturated and other types of fat with risk of breast cancer
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - 0003-9926 .- 1538-3679. ; 158:1, s. 41-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat may have opposite effects on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study, including 61,471 women aged 40 to 76 years from 2 counties in central Sweden who did not have any previous diagnosis of cancer; 674 cases of invasive breast cancer occurred during an average follow-up of 4.2 years. All subjects answered a validated 67-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain adjusted rate ratio (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After mutual adjustment of different types of fat, an inverse association with monounsaturated fat and a positive association with polyunsaturated fat were found. The RR for each 10-g increment in daily intake of monounsaturated fat was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.22-0.95), whereas the RR for a 5-g increment of polyunsaturated fat was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.02-2.78); the increments correspond to approximately 2 SDs of intake in the population. Comparing the highest quartile of intake with the lowest, we found an RR of 0.8 (95% CI, 0.5-1.2) for monounsaturated fat and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9-1.6) for polyunsaturated fat. Saturated fat was not associated with the risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that various types of fat may have specific opposite effects on the risk of breast cancer that closely resemble the corresponding effects in experimental animals. Research investigations and health policy considerations should take into account the emerging evidence that monounsaturated fat might be protective for risk of breast cancer.
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