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Sökning: WFRF:(Williams Nigel M.)

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11.
  • Mok, Kin Y, et al. (författare)
  • Deletions at 22q11.2 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease : a combined analysis of genome-wide association data
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Neurology. - Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 15:6, s. 96-585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease has been reported in a small number of patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. In this study, we screened a series of large, independent Parkinson's disease case-control studies for deletions at 22q11.2.METHODS: We used data on deletions spanning the 22q11.2 locus from four independent case-control Parkinson's disease studies (UK Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, Dutch Parkinson's Disease Genetics Consortium, US National Institute on Aging, and International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium studies), which were independent of the original reports of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We did case-control association analysis to compare the proportion of 22q11.2 deletions found, using the Fisher's exact test for the independent case-control studies and the Mantel-Haenszel test for the meta-analyses. We retrieved clinical details of patients with Parkinson's disease who had 22q11.2 deletions from the medical records of these patients.FINDINGS: We included array-based copy number variation data from 9387 patients with Parkinson's disease and 13 863 controls. Eight patients with Parkinson's disease and none of the controls had 22q11.2 deletions (p=0·00082). In the 8451 patients for whom age at onset data were available, deletions at 22q11.2 were associated with Parkinson's disease age at onset (Mann-Whitney U test p=0·001). Age at onset of Parkinson's disease was lower in patients carrying a 22q11.2 deletion (median 37 years, 95% CI 32·0-55·5; mean 42·1 years [SD 11·9]) than in those who did not carry a deletion (median 61 years, 95% CI 60·5-61·0; mean 60·3 years [SD 12·8]). A 22q11.2 deletion was present in more patients with early-onset (p<0·0001) and late-onset Parkinson's disease (p=0·016) than in controls, and in more patients with early-onset than late-onset Parkinson's disease (p=0·005).INTERPRETATION: Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of 22q11.2 deletions in patients with Parkinson's disease who have early presentation or features associated with the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or both.FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK Wellcome Trust, Parkinson's UK, Patrick Berthoud Trust, National Institutes of Health, "Investissements d'Avenir" ANR-10-IAIHU-06, Dutch Parkinson Foundation (Parkinson Vereniging), Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health.
12.
  • Evangelou, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies novel variants associated with osteoarthritis of the hip
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - British Medical Association. - 1468-2060. ; 73:12, s. 2130-2136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis with a clear genetic component. To identify novel loci associated with hip OA we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on European subjects. Methods We performed a two-stage meta-analysis on more than 78 000 participants. In stage 1, we synthesised data from eight GWAS whereas data from 10 centres were used for 'in silico' or 'de novo' replication. Besides the main analysis, a stratified by sex analysis was performed to detect possible sex-specific signals. Meta-analysis was performed using inverse-variance fixed effects models. A random effects approach was also used. Results We accumulated 11 277 cases of radiographic and symptomatic hip OA. We prioritised eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) for follow-up in the discovery stage (4349 OA cases); five from the combined analysis, two male specific and one female specific. One locus, at 20q13, represented by rs6094710 (minor allele frequency (MAF) 4%) near the NCOA3 (nuclear receptor coactivator 3) gene, reached genome-wide significance level with p=7.9x10(-9) and OR=1.28 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.39) in the combined analysis of discovery (p= 5.6x10(-8)) and follow-up studies (p=7.3x10(-4)). We showed that this gene is expressed in articular cartilage and its expression was significantly reduced in OA-affected cartilage. Moreover, two loci remained suggestive associated; rs5009270 at 7q31 (MAF 30%, p=9.9x10(-7), OR=1.10) and rs3757837 at 7p13 (MAF 6%, p=2.2x10(-6), OR=1.27 in male specific analysis). Conclusions Novel genetic loci for hip OA were found in this meta-analysis of GWAS.
13.
  • Lawton, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Equating scores of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and Sniffin' Sticks test in patients with Parkinson's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. - Elsevier. - 1873-5126. ; 33, s. 96-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Impaired olfaction is an important feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological diseases. A variety of smell identification tests exist such as "Sniffin' Sticks" and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). An important part of research is being able to replicate findings or combining studies in a meta-analysis. This is difficult if olfaction has been measured using different metrics. We present conversion methods between the: UPSIT, Sniffin' 16, and Brief-SIT (B-SIT); and Sniffin' 12 and Sniffin' 16 odour identification tests.METHODS: We used two incident cohorts of patients with PD who were tested with either the Sniffin' 16 (n = 1131) or UPSIT (n = 980) and a validation dataset of 128 individuals who took both tests. We used the equipercentile and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods to equate the olfaction scales.RESULTS: The equipercentile conversion suggested some bias between UPSIT and Sniffin' 16 tests across the two groups. The IRT method shows very good characteristics between the true and converted Sniffin' 16 (delta mean = 0.14, median = 0) based on UPSIT. The equipercentile conversion between the Sniffin' 12 and 16 item worked well (delta mean = 0.01, median = 0). The UPSIT to B-SIT conversion showed evidence of bias but amongst PD cases worked well (mean delta = -0.08, median = 0).CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that one can convert UPSIT to B-SIT or Sniffin' 16, and Sniffin' 12 to 16 scores in a valid way. This can facilitate direct comparison between tests aiding future collaborative analyses and evidence synthesis.
14.
  • Majounie, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 11:4, s. 323-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with ALS (El Escorial criteria) and 1425 patients with FTD (Lund-Manchester criteria) from 17 regions worldwide for the GGGGCC hexanucleotide expansion using a repeat-primed PCR assay. We assessed familial disease status on the basis of self-reported family history of similar neurodegenerative diseases at the time of sample collection. We compared haplotype data for 262 patients carrying the expansion with the known Finnish founder risk haplotype across the chromosomal locus. We calculated age-related penetrance using the Kaplan-Meier method with data for 603 individuals with the expansion. Findings In patients with sporadic ALS, we identified the repeat expansion in 236 (7.0%) of 3377 white individuals from the USA, Europe, and Australia, two (4.1%) of 49 black individuals from the USA, and six (8.3%) of 72 Hispanic individuals from the USA. The mutation was present in 217 (39.3%) of 552 white individuals with familial MS from Europe and the USA. 59 (6.0%) of 981 white Europeans with sporadic FTD had the mutation, as did 99 (24.8%) of 400 white Europeans with familial FTD. Data for other ethnic groups were sparse, but we identified one Asian patient with familial ALS (from 20 assessed) and two with familial FTD (from three assessed) who carried the mutation. The mutation was not carried by the three Native Americans or 360 patients from Asia or the Pacific Islands with sporadic MS who were tested, or by 41 Asian patients with sporadic FTD. All patients with the repeat expansion had (partly or fully) the founder haplotype, suggesting a one-off expansion occurring about 1500 years ago. The pathogenic expansion was non-penetrant in individuals younger than 35 years, 50% penetrant by 58 years, and almost fully penetrant by 80 years. Interpretation A common Mendelian genetic lesion in C9472 is implicated in many cases of sporadic and familial ALS and FTD. Testing for this pathogenic expansion should be considered in the management and genetic counselling of patients with these fatal neurodegenerative diseases.
15.
  • Malek, Naveed, et al. (författare)
  • Tracking Parkinson's : Study Design and Baseline Patient Data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - IOS Press. - 1877-718X. ; 5:4, s. 59-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There is wide variation in the phenotypic expression of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is driven by both genetic and epidemiological influences.OBJECTIVES: To define and explain variation in the clinical phenotype of PD, in relation to genotypic variation.METHODS: Tracking Parkinson's is a multicentre prospective longitudinal epidemiologic and biomarker study of PD. Patients attending specialist clinics in the United Kingdom with recent onset (<3.5 years) and young onset (diagnosed <50 years of age) PD were enrolled. Motor, non-motor and quality of life assessments were performed using validated scales. Cases are followed up 6 monthly up to 4.5 years for recent onset PD, and up to 1 year for young onset PD. We present here baseline clinical data from this large and demographically representative cohort.RESULTS: 2247 PD cases were recruited (1987 recent onset, 260 young onset). Recent onset cases had a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 67.6 years (9.3) at study entry, 65.7% males, with disease duration 1.3 years (0.9), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 22.9 (12.3), LEDD 295 mg/day (211) and PDQ-8 score 5.9 (4.8). Young onset cases were 53.5 years old (7.8) at study entry, 66.9% male, with disease duration 10.2 years (6.7), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 27.4 (15.3), LEDD 926 mg/day (567) and PDQ-8 score 11.6 (6.1).CONCLUSIONS: We have established a large clinical PD cohort, consisting of young onset and recent onset cases, which is designed to evaluate variation in clinical expression, in relation to genetic influences, and which offers a platform for future imaging and biomarker research.
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16.
  • Malek, Naveed, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular disease and vascular risk factors in relation to motor features and cognition in early Parkinson's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 31:10, s. 1518-1526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vascular disease (and vascular risk factors), cognition and motor phenotype in Parkinson's disease (PD).METHODS: Recently diagnosed PD cases were enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational longitudinal cohort study. Montreal cognitive assessment (normal >23, mild cognitive impairment 22 to 23 or lower but without functional impairment, and dementia 21 or less with functional impairment) and Movement Disorder Society Unified PD Rating Scale part 3 (UPDRS 3) scores were analyzed in relation to a history of vascular events and risk factors.RESULTS: In 1759 PD cases, mean age 67.5 (standard deviation 9.3) years, mean disease duration 1.3 (standard deviation 0.9) years, 65.2% were men, 4.7% had a history of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, and 12.5% had cardiac disease (angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure). In cases without a history of vascular disease, hypertension was recorded in 30.4%, high cholesterol 27.3%, obesity 20.7%, diabetes 7.2%, and cigarette smoking in 4.6%. Patients with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack were more likely to have cognitive impairment (42% vs 25%) and postural instability gait difficulty (53.5% vs 39.5%), but these findings were not significant after adjustment for age, sex, and disease duration (P = .075). The presence of more than 2 vascular risks was associated with worse UPDRS 3 motor scores (beta coefficient 4.05, 95% confidence interval 1.48, 6.61, p = .002) and with cognitive impairment (ordinal odds ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.34, 3.74, p = .002). In 842 patients (47.8%) with structural brain imaging, white matter leukoaraiosis, but not lacunar or territorial infarction, was associated with impaired cognition (p = .006) and postural instability gait difficulty (p = .010).CONCLUSION: Vascular comorbidity is significantly associated with cognitive and gait impairment in patients with early PD, which may have prognostic and treatment implications. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
17.
  • Stanton, Biba R, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging in sporadic and familial (D90A SOD1) forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of Neurology. - American Medical Association. - 0003-9942. ; 66:1, s. 109-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The basis of heterogeneity in the clinical presentation and rate of progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To use diffusion tensor imaging as a measure of axonal pathologic features in vivo in ALS and to compare a homogeneous form of familial ALS (homozygous D90A SOD1 [superoxide dismutase 1]) with sporadic ALS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study. SETTING: Tertiary referral neurology clinic. PATIENTS: Twenty patients with sporadic ALS, 6 patients with homozygous D90A SOD1 ALS, and 21 healthy control subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fractional anisotropy in cerebral white matter. RESULTS: Patients with homozygous D90A SOD1 ALS showed less extensive pathologic white matter in motor and extramotor pathways compared with patients with sporadic ALS, despite similar disease severity assessed clinically using a standard functional rating scale. Fractional anisotropy correlated with clinical measures of severity and upper motor neuron involvement. CONCLUSION: In vivo diffusion tensor imaging measures demonstrate differences in white matter degeneration between sporadic ALS and a unique familial form of the disease, indicating that genotype influences the distribution of cerebral pathologic features in ALS.
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18.
  • Swallow, Diane M A, et al. (författare)
  • Statins are underused in recent-onset Parkinson's disease with increased vascular risk : findings from the UK Tracking Parkinson's and Oxford Parkinson's Disease Centre (OPDC) discovery cohorts
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1468-330X. ; 87:11, s. 1183-1190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) influences phenotypic variation in Parkinson's disease (PD), and is usually an indication for statin therapy. It is less clear whether cardiovascular risk factors influence PD phenotype, and if statins are prescribed appropriately.OBJECTIVES: To quantify vascular risk and statin use in recent-onset PD, and examine the relationship between vascular risk, PD severity and phenotype.METHODS: Cardiovascular risk was quantified using the QRISK2 calculator (high ≥20%, medium ≥10 and <20%, low risk <10%). Motor severity and phenotype were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and cognition by the Montreal cognitive assessment.RESULTS: In 2909 individuals with recent-onset PD, the mean age was 67.5 years (SD 9.3), 63.5% were men and the mean disease duration was 1.3 years (SD 0.9). 33.8% of cases had high vascular risk, 28.7% medium risk, and 22.3% low risk, while 15.2% of cases had established CVD. Increasing vascular risk and CVD were associated with older age (p<0.001), worse motor score (p<0.001), more cognitive impairment (p<0.001) and worse motor phenotype (p=0.021). Statins were prescribed in 37.2% with high vascular risk, 15.1% with medium vascular risk and 6.5% with low vascular risk, which compared with statin usage in 75.3% of those with CVD.CONCLUSIONS: Over 60% of recent-onset PD patients have high or medium cardiovascular risk (meriting statin usage), which is associated with a worse motor and cognitive phenotype. Statins are underused in these patients, compared with those with vascular disease, which is a missed opportunity for preventive treatment.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: GN11NE062, NCT02881099.
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19.
  • Yi, Chuixiang, et al. (författare)
  • Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid-and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid-and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 degrees N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at similar to 16 degrees C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.
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20.
  • Sutrala, Smitha R, et al. (författare)
  • Gene copy number variation in schizophrenia
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Research. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0920-9964. ; 96:1-3, s. 93-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The possibility that gene copy number variations play a role in the development of complex disorders is a topic of considerable interest. Recent reports have highlighted the large number of such variations that exist and that their occurrence varies considerably between populations. A recent report has suggested that copy number variations in four genes (GRIK3, EFNA5, AKAP5 and CACNG2) may be associated with schizophrenia. One problem with this area of study is the validation of high throughput methods such as comparative genomic hybridisation, as the latter inevitably generates false positives. We have used two contrasting methodologies to determine the validity of the findings reported above which if true would have major implications for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Samples from a UK population were tested using a method of allele quantification by DNA pooling and samples from Belgium and northern Sweden were tested using Multiplex Amplicon Quantification (MAQ). Both methods were used to test DNA samples used in the original investigation. No copy number variations were found for any of the genes in any samples. Our data suggests that more reliable methods need to be used to validate the existence of CNVs before full scale association studies are carried out.
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