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Sökning: WFRF:(van der Werf P.P.)

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11.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • ALMA imaging of C2H emission in the disk of NGC 1068
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 608, s. A56-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. We study the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity on the chemistry of molecular gas in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing whether the abundances of key molecular species such as ethynyl (C2H), which is a classical tracer of photon dominated regions (PDR), change in the different environments of the disk of the galaxy. Methods. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the hyperfine multiplet of C2H(N = 1-0) and its underlying continuum emission in the central r similar or equal to 35" (2.5 kpc) region of the disk of NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution 1.0 x 0.7 (similar or equal to 50-70 pc). We used maps of the dust continuum emission obtained at 349 GHz by ALMA to derive the H-2 gas column densities and combined these with the C2H map at matched spatial resolution to estimate the fractional abundance of this species. We developed a set of time-dependent chemical models, which include shocks, gas-phase PDRs, and gas-grain chemical models to determine the origin of the C2H gas. Results. A sizeable fraction of the total C2H line emission is detected from the r similar or equal to 1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring, which is a region that concentrates the bulk of the recent massive star formation in the disk traced by the Pa alpha emission complexes imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, the brightest C2H emission originates from a r similar or equal to 200 pc off -centered circumnuclear disk (CND), where evidence of a molecular outflow has been previously found in other molecular tracers imaged by ALMA. We also detect significant emission that connects the CND with the outer disk in a region that probes the interface between the molecular disk and ionized gas outflow out to r similar or equal to 400 pc. We derived the fractional abundances of C2H (X(C2H)) assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions and a set of excitation temperatures (T-ex) constrained by the previous multiline CO studies of the galaxy. Our estimates range from X(C2H) similar or equal to a few 10(-8) in the SB ring up to X(C2H) similar or equal to a few 10(-7) in the outflow region. The PDR models that incorporate gas-grain chemistry are able to account for X(C2H) in the SB ring for moderately dense (n(H-2) >= 10(4) cm(-3)) and moderately UV-irradiated gas (UV-field = 10(4-5) cm(-3)). Conclusions. We find that the transient conditions required to fit the high values of X(C2H) in the outflow are likely due to UV or X-ray irradiated non-dissociative shocks associated with the highly turbulent interface between the outflow and molecular gas in NGC 1068. Although the inferred local timescales are short, the erosion of molecular clouds by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) wind and/or the jet likely resupplies the interface working surface continuously, making a nearly steady state persist in the disk of the galaxy.
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12.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • ALMA resolves the torus of NGC 1068: Continuum and molecular line emission
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 823:1, s. Art. no. L12-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 mu m continuum emission from the 300 pc sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of similar to 4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and, for the first time, image the dust emission, the molecular gas distribution, and the kinematics from a 7-10 pc diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near-and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY torus models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: M-gas(torus) = (1 +/- 0.3) x 10(5) M-circle dot and R-torus = 3.5 +/- 0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show strong non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on a surprisingly slow rotation pattern of the disk. By contrast with the nearly edge-on orientation of the H2O megamaser disk, we found evidence suggesting that the molecular torus is less inclined (i = 34 degrees-66 degrees) at larger radii. The lopsided morphology and complex kinematics of the torus could be the signature of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, long predicted to likely drive the dynamical evolution of active galactic nuclei tori.
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13.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution imaging of the molecular outflows in two mergers: IRAS 17208-0014 and NGC 1614
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. Aims. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC 1614 (DL = 66 Mpc) and IRAS 17208-0014 (DL = 181 Mpc), by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. Both galaxies present evidence of outflows in other phases of their ISM. Methods. We used the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) to image the CO(10) and CO(21) line emissions in NGC 1614 and IRAS 17208-0014, respectively, with high spatial resolution (0: 0051: 002). The velocity fields of the gas were analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum, and energy of these components. Results. While most (95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially resolved (23 kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that extend up to -500-700 km s1, well beyond the estimated virial range associated with rotation and turbulence. The kinematic major axis of the line-wing emission is tilted by 90 in NGC 1614 and by 180 in IRAS 17208-0014 relative to the major axes of their respective rotating disks. These results can be explained by the existence of non-coplanar molecular outflows in both systems: the outflow axis is nearly perpendicular to the rotating disk in NGC 1614, but it is tilted relative to the angular momentum axis of the rotating disk in IRAS 17208-0014. Conclusions. In stark contrast to NGC 1614, where star formation alone can drive its molecular outflow, the mass, energy, and momentum budget requirements of the molecular outflow in IRAS 17208-0014 can be best accounted for by the existence of a so far undetected (hidden) AGN of LAGN71011 L The geometry of the molecular outflow in IRAS 17208-0014 suggests that the outflow is launched by a non-coplanar disk that may be associated with a buried AGN in the western nucleus.
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14.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA : I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 567, s. 125-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self-regulate.Methods. We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas (n(H2) ' 1056 cm3) tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ∼ 2 kpc of NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ∼0:3000:500 (∼20-35 pc for the assumed distance of D = 14 Mpc). Results. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give an unprecedented detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas (n(H2) ≈ 1056cm3) in NGC 1068. Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ∼ 200 pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6 kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ∼ 1:3 kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN, and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), betraying ongoing feedback. We used the dust continuum fluxes measured by ALMA together with NIR/MIR data to constrain the properties of the putative torus using CLUMPY models and found a torus radius of 20+6 10 pc. The Fourier decomposition of the gas velocity field indicates that rotation is perturbed by an inward radial flow in the SB ring and the bar region. However, the gas kinematics from r ∼ 50 pc out to r ∼ 400 pc reveal a massive (Mmol ∼ 2:7+0:9 1:2 × 107 M) outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. Conclusions. The molecular outflow is likely launched when the ionization cone of the narrow line region sweeps the nuclear disk. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, dM=dt ∼ 63+21 37 M yr1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii, confirming that the outflow is AGN driven. The power of the AGN is able to account for the estimated momentum and kinetic luminosity of the outflow. The CND mass load rate of the CND outflow implies a very short gas depletion timescale of ≤1 Myr. The CND gas reservoir is likely replenished on longer timescales by efficient gas inflow from the outer disk. © ESO 2014.
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15.
  • Charlton, M., et al. (författare)
  • Positron production using a 9 MeV electron linac for the GBAR experiment
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the GBAR (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest) experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility we have constructed a source of slow positrons, which uses a low-energy electron linear accelerator (linac). The driver linac produces electrons of 9 MeV kinetic energy that create positrons from bremsstrahlung-induced pair production. Staying below 10 MeV ensures no persistent radioactive activation in the target zone and that the radiation level outside the biological shield is safe for public access. An annealed tungsten-mesh assembly placed directly behind the target acts as a positron moderator. The system produces 5 x 10(7) slow positrons per second, a performance demonstrating that a low-energy electron linac is a superior choice over positron-emitting radioactive sources for high positron flux.
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16.
  • Coppin, K. E. K., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel-PACS observations of [O I]63 μm towards submillimetre galaxies at z~1
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 427:1, s. 520-532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of the [O I]63 μm far-infrared cooling line from a sample of six unlensed and spectroscopically confirmed 870 μm selected submillimetre (submm) galaxies (SMGs) at 1.1
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17.
  • Coppin, K. E. K., et al. (författare)
  • The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: the submillimetre properties of Lyman-break galaxies at z=3-5
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 446:2, s. 1293-1304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present detections at 850 mu m of the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population at z approximate to 3, 4, and 5 using data from the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array 2 Cosmology Legacy Survey in the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey 'Ultra Deep Survey' field. We employ stacking to probe beneath the survey limit, measuring the average 850 mu m flux density of LBGs at z approximate to 3, 4, and 5 with typical ultraviolet luminosities of L-1700 approximate to 10(29) erg s(-1) Hz(-1). We measure 850 mu m flux densities of (0.25 +/- 0.03), (0.41 +/- 0.06), and (0.88 +/- 0.23) mJy, respectively, finding that they contribute at most 20 per cent to the cosmic far-infrared (IR) background at 850 mu m. Fitting an appropriate range of spectral energy distributions to the z similar to 3, 4, and 5 LBG stacked 24-850 mu m fluxes, we derive IR luminosities of L8-1000 (mu m) approximate to 3.2, 5.5, and 11.0 x 10(11) L-circle dot [and star formation rates (SFRs) of approximate to 50-200M(circle dot) yr(-1)], respectively. We find that the evolution in the IR luminosity density of LBGs is broadly consistent with model predictions for the expected contribution of luminous-to-ultraluminous IR galaxies at these epochs. We observe a positive correlation between stellar mass and IR luminosity and confirm that, for a fixed mass, the reddest LBGs (UV slope beta -> 0) are redder due to dust extinction, with SFR (IR)/SFR (UV) increasing by about an order of magnitude over -2
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18.
  • Falstad, Niklas, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Herschel spectroscopic observations of the compact obscured nucleus in Zw 049.057
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 580, s. A52-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The luminous infrared galaxy Zw 049.057 contains a compact obscured nucleus where a considerable amount of the galaxy's luminosity is generated. This nucleus contains a dusty environment that is rich in molecular gas. One approach to probing this kind of environment and to revealing what is hidden behind the dust is to study the rotational lines of molecules that couple well with the infrared radiation emitted by the dust. Aims. We probe the physical conditions in the core of Zw 049.057 and establish the nature of its nuclear power source (starburst or active galactic nucleus). Methods. We observed Zw 049.057 with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory in rotational lines of H2O, H218O, OH, 18OH, and [O I]. We modeled the unresolved core of the galaxy using a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. To account for the different excitation requirements of the various molecular transitions, we use multiple components and different physical conditions. Results. We present the full high-resolution SPIRE FTS spectrum of Zw 049.057, along with relevant spectral scans in the PACS range. We find that a minimum of two different components (nuclear and extended) are required in order to account for the rich molecular line spectrum of Zw 049.057. The nuclear component has a radius of 10-30 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (∼1014L⊙kpc-2), warm dust (Td > 100 K), and a very large H2 column density (NH2 = 1024-1025 cm-2). The modeling also indicates high nuclear H2O (∼5 × 10-6) and OH (∼4 × 10-6) abundances relative to H2 as well as a low 16O/18O-ratio of 50-100. We also find a prominent infall signature in the [O I] line. We tentatively detect a 500 km s-1 outflow in the H2O 313 → 202 line. Conclusions. The high surface brightness of the core indicates the presence of either a buried active galactic nucleus or a very dense nuclear starburst. The estimated column density towards the core of Zw 049.057 indicates that it is Compton-thick, making a buried X-ray source difficult to detect even in hard X-rays. We discuss the elevated H2O abundance in the nucleus in the context of warm grain and gas-phase chemistry. The H2O abundance is comparable to that of other compact (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies such as NGC 4418 and Arp 220 - and also to hot cores in the Milky Way. The enhancement of 18O is a possible indicator that the nucleus of Zw 049.057 is in a similar evolutionary stage as the nuclei of Arp 220 - and more advanced than NGC 4418. We discuss the origin of the extreme nuclear gas concentration and note that the infalling gas detected in [O I] implies that the gas reservoir in the central region of Zw 049.057 is being replenished. If confirmed, the H2O outflow suggests that the nucleus is in a stage of rapid evolution.
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19.
  • Gonzalez-Alfonso, E., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel observations of water vapour in Markarian 231
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Mrk 231 reveals up to seven rotational lines of water (H2O) in emission, including a very high-lying (Eupper = 640 K) line detected at a 4 sigma level, within the Herschel/SPIRE wavelength range (190
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20.
  • Husson, A., et al. (författare)
  • A pulsed high-voltage decelerator system to deliver low-energy antiprotons
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 1002
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The GBAR (Gravitational Behavior of Antihydrogen at Rest) experiment at CERN requires efficient deceleration of 100 keV antiprotons provided by the new ELENA synchrotron ring to synthesize antihydrogen. This is accomplished using electrostatic deceleration optics and a drift tube that is designed to switch from -99 kV to ground when the antiproton bunch is inside – essentially a charged particle “elevator” – producing a 1 keV pulse. We describe the simulation, design, construction and successful testing of the decelerator device at -92 kV on-line with antiprotons from ELENA.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 30
  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa

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