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Sökning: WFRF:(van der Werf P.P.)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 30
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Huynh, M. T., et al. (författare)
  • Physical conditions of the gas in an ALMA C II -identified submillimetre galaxy at z=4.44
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 431:1, s. L88-L92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present (CO)-C-12(2-1) observations of the submillimetre galaxy ALESS65.1 performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 42.3 GHz. A previous Atacama Large Millimeter Array study of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South detected [C II] 157.74 mu m emission from this galaxy at a redshift of z= 4.44. No (CO)-C-12(21) emission was detected but we derive a firm upper limit to the cold gas mass in ALESS65.1 of M-gas 4 SMGs being the likely progenitors of massive red-and-dead galaxies at z > 2. The ratio of the [CII], (CO)-C-12 and far-infrared luminosities implies a strong far-ultraviolet field of G(0) greater than or similar to 103, as seen in Galactic star-forming regions or local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The observed L-[C II]/L-FIR = 2.3 x 10(-3) is high compared to local ULIRGs and, combined withLL([CII])/L-CO greater than or similar to 2700, it is consistent with ALESS65.1 either having an extended (several kpc) [C II] emitting region or lower than solar metallicity.
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22.
  • Kim, B. H., et al. (författare)
  • Development of a PbWO4 Detector for Single-Shot Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy at the GBAR Experiment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Physica Polonica. A. - 0587-4246 .- 1898-794X. ; 137:2, s. 122-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have developed a PbWO4 (PWO) detector with a large dynamic range to measure the intensity of a positron beam and the absolute density of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) cloud it creates. A simulation study shows that a setup based on such detectors may be used to determine the angular distribution of the emission and reflection of o-Ps to reduce part of the uncertainties of the measurement. These will allow to improve the precision in the measurement of the cross-section for the (anti)hydrogen formation by (anti)proton-positronium charge exchange and to optimize the yield of antihydrogen ion which is an essential parameter in the GBAR experiment.
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23.
  • Koprowski, M. P., et al. (författare)
  • A resolved map of the infrared excess in a Lyman Break Galaxy at z= 3
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 828:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have observed the dust continuum of 10 z = 3.1 Lyman break galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at similar to 450 mas resolution in Band 7. We detect and resolve the 870 mu m emission in one of the targets with a flux density of S-870 = 192 +/- 57 mu Jy, and measure a stacked 3 sigma signal of S-870 = 67 +/- 23 mu Jy for the remaining nine. The total infrared luminosities are L8-1000 = (8.4 +/- 2.3) x 10(10) L-circle dot for the detection and L8-1000 = (2.9 +/- 0.9) x 10(10) L-circle dot for the stack. With Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys I-band imaging we map the rest-frame UV emission on the same scale as the dust, effectively resolving the "infrared excess" (IRX = L-FIR/L-UV) in a normal galaxy at z = 3. Integrated over the galaxy we measure IRX = 0.56 +/- 0.15, and the galaxy-averaged UV slope is beta = -1.25 +/- 0.03. This puts the galaxy a factor of similar to 10 below the IRX-beta relation for local starburst nuclei of Meurer et al. However, IRX varies by more than a factor of 3 across the galaxy, and we conclude that the complex relative morphology of the dust relative to UV emission is largely responsible for the scatter in the IRX-beta relation at high-z. A naive application of a Meurer-like dust correction based on the UV slope would dramatically overestimate the total star formation rate, and our results support growing evidence that when integrated over the galaxy, the typical conditions in high-z star-forming galaxies are not analogous to those in the local starburst nuclei used to establish the Meurer relation.
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24.
  • Meijerink, R., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for CO Shock Excitation in NGC 6240 from Herschel SPIRE Spectroscopy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 762:2, s. L16-L20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Herschel SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of the nearby luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240. In total 20 linesare detected, including CO J = 4−3 through J = 13−12, 6 H2O rotational lines, and [C i] and [N ii] fine-structurelines. The CO to continuum luminosity ratio is 10 times higher in NGC 6240 than Mrk 231. Although the COladdersof NGC 6240 and Mrk 231 are very similar, UV and/or X-ray irradiation are unlikely to be responsible for theexcitation of the gas in NGC 6240.We applied both C and J shock models to the H2 v = 1–0 S(1) and v = 2–1 S(1)lines and the CO rotational ladder. The CO ladder is best reproduced by amodel with shock velocity vs = 10 km s−1and a pre-shock density nH = 5 × 104 cm−3. We find that the solution best fitting the H2 lines is degenerate. The shock velocities and number densities range between vs = 17–47 km s−1 and nH = 107–5×104 cm−3, respectively.The H2 lines thus need a much more powerful shock than the CO lines.We deduce that most of the gas is currently moderately stirred up by slow (10 km s−1) shocks while only a small fraction (1%) of the interstellar mediumis exposed to the high-velocity shocks. This implies that the gas is rapidly losing its highly turbulent motions. We argue that a high CO line-to-continuum ratio is a key diagnostic for the presence of shocks.
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25.
  • Niang, S., et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation of Positrons from a LINAC Based Source
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta Physica Polonica. A. - 0587-4246 .- 1898-794X. ; 137:2, s. 164-166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The GBAR experiment aims to measure the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen (H) over bar. It will use (H) over bar (+) ions formed by the interaction of antiprotons with a dense positronium cloud, which will require about 1010 positrons to produce one (H) over bar (+). We present the first results on the positron accumulation, reaching 3.8 +/- 0.4x10(8) e(+) collected in 560 s.
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26.
  • Scourfield, M., et al. (författare)
  • ALMA observations of CS in NGC 1068: chemistry and excitation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 496:4, s. 5308-5329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CS from the nearby galaxy NGC 1068 (similar to 14 Mpc). This Seyfert 2 barred galaxy possesses a circumnuclear disc (CND, r similar to 200 pc) and a starburst ring (SB ring, r similar to 1.3 kpc). These high-resolution maps (similar to 0.5 arcsec, similar to 35 pc) allow us to analyse specific sub-regions in the galaxy and investigate differences in line intensity ratios and physical conditions, particularly those between the CND and SB ring. Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the gas is used to calculate CS densities in each sub-region, followed by the non-LTE analysis conducted using the radiative transfer code RADEX to fit observations and constrain gas temperature, CS column density and hydrogen density. Finally, the chemical code UCLCHEM is used to reconstruct the gas, allowing an insight into its origin and chemical history. The density of hydrogen in the CND is found to be >= 10(5) cm(-2), although exact values vary, reaching 10(6) cm(-2) at the active galactic nucleus. The conditions in the two arms of the SB ring appear similar to one another, though the density found (similar to 10(4) cm(-2)) is lower than in the CND. The temperature in the CND increases from east to west, and is also overall greater than found in the SB ring. These modelling methods indicate the requirement for multiphase gas components in order to fit the observed emission over the galaxy. A larger number of high-resolution transitions across the SLED may allow for further constraining of the conditions, particularly in the SB ring.
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27.
  • Simpson, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION AND EVOLUTION OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 788:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 mu m submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z(phot) = 2.3 +/- 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z similar to 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to zphot = 2.5 +/- 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z >= 3 is at most 35% +/- 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M star = (8 +/- 1) x 10(10) M circle dot, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 x for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of similar to 100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z similar to 0 would have a space density and MH distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.
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28.
  • Simpson, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: ALMA RESOLVES the BRIGHT-END of the SUB-MILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 807:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present high-resolution 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1 degree2 850 μm maps from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SSCUBA-2= 8.7 ± 0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4σ significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61-15+19% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of ≥2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with LIR ≳ 1012 L⊙. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80-2+6% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing ≥2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25-5+1% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S870 > 7.5 mJy, and by 60% at S870 > 12 mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the counts are well-described by a double power law with a break at 8.5 ± 0.6 mJy. The break corresponds to a luminosity of ∼6 × 1012 L⊙ or a star formation rate (SFR) of ∼103 M⊙ yr-1. For the typical sizes of these SMGs, which are resolved in our ALMA data with Re = 1.2 ± 0.1 kpc, this yields a limiting SFR density of ∼100 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 Finally, the number density of S870 ≳ 2 mJy SMGs is 80 ± 30 times higher than that derived from blank-field counts. An over-abundance of faint SMGs is inconsistent with line-of-sight projections dominating multiplicity in the brightest SMGs, and indicates that a significant proportion of these high-redshift ULIRGs are likely to be physically associated.
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29.
  • Viti, S., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA II. The chemistry of the dense molecular gas
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 570, s. 28-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. We present a detailed analysis of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN, and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~200 pc circumnuclear disc (CND) and the ~1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy. We aim to determine the physical characteristics of the dense gas present in the CND, and to establish whether the different line intensity ratios we find within the CND, as well as between the CND and the SB ring, are due to excitation effects (gas density and temperature differences) or to a different chemistry.Methods. We estimate the column densities of each species in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We then compute large one-dimensional, non-LTE radiative transfer grids (using RADEX) by using only the CO transitions first, and then all the available molecules to constrain the densities, temperatures, and column densities within the CND. We finally present a preliminary set of chemical models to determine the origin of the gas.Results. We find that, in general, the gas in the CND is very dense (>105 cm-3) and hot (T> 150 K), with differences especially in the temperature across the CND. The AGN position has the lowest CO/HCO+, CO/HCN, and CO/CS column density ratios. The RADEX analyses seem to indicate that there is chemical differentiation across the CND. We also find differences between the chemistry of the SB ring and some regions of the CND; the SB ring is also much colder and less dense than the CND. Chemical modelling does not succeed in reproducing all the molecular ratios with one model per region, suggesting the presence of multi-gas phase components.Conclusions. The LTE, RADEX, and chemical analyses all indicate that more than one gas-phase component is necessary to uniquely fit all the available molecular ratios within the CND. A higher number of molecular transitions at the ALMA resolution is necessary to determine quantitatively the physical and chemical characteristics of these components.
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30.
  • Wardlow, J. L., et al. (författare)
  • The LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South: a photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 415:2, s. 1479-1508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We derive photometric redshifts from 17-band optical to mid-infrared photometry of 78 robust radio, 24-mu m and Spitzer IRAC counterparts to 72 of the 126 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) selected at 870 mu m by LABOCA observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S). We test the photometric redshifts of the SMGs against the extensive archival spectroscopy in the ECDF-S. The median photometric redshift of identified SMGs is z = 2.2 +/- 0.1, the standard deviation is sigma(z) = 0.9 and we identify 11 (similar to 15 per cent) high-redshift (z >= 3) SMGs. A statistical analysis of sources in the error circles of unidentified SMGs identifies a population of possible counterparts with a redshift distribution peaking at z = 2.5 +/- 0.2, which likely comprises similar to 60 per cent of the unidentified SMGs. This confirms that the bulk of the undetected SMGs are coeval with those detected in the radio/mid-infrared. We conclude that at most similar to 15 per cent of all the SMGs are below the flux limits of our IRAC observations and thus may lie at z greater than or similar to 3 and hence at most similar to 30 per cent of all SMGs have z greater than or similar to 3. We estimate that the full S(870 mu m) > 4mJy SMG population has a median redshift of 2.5 +/- 0.5. In contrast to previous suggestions, we find no significant correlation between submillimetre flux and redshift. The median stellar mass of the SMGs derived from spectral energy distribution fitting is (9.1 +/- 0.5) x 10(10)M(circle dot) although we caution that the uncertainty in the star formation histories results in a factor of similar to 5 uncertainty in these stellarmasses. Using a single temperature modified blackbody fit with beta = 1.5, the median characteristic dust temperature of SMGs is 37.4 +/- 1.4K. The infrared luminosity function shows that SMGs at z = 2-3 typically have higher far-infrared luminosities and luminosity density than those at z = 1-2. This is mirrored in the evolution of the star formation rate density (SFRD) for SMGs which peaks at z similar to 2. The maximum contribution of bright SMGs to the global SFRD (similar to 5 per cent for SMGs with S(870 mu m) greater than or similar to 4mJy or similar to 50 per cent extrapolated to SMGs with S(870 mu m) > 1mJy) also occurs at z similar to 2.
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