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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(HUMANIORA) hsv:(Språk och litteratur) hsv:(Jämförande språkvetenskap och lingvistik) "

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  • Whiting, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Real-time Functional Architecture of Visual Word Recognition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. - MIT Press. - 1530-8898. ; 27:2, s. 246-265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite a century of research into visual word recognition, basic questions remain unresolved about the functional architecture of the process that maps visual inputs from orthographic analysis onto lexical form and meaning and about the units of analysis in terms of which these processes are conducted. Here we use magnetoencephalography, supported by a masked priming behavioral study, to address these questions using contrasting sets of simple (walk), complex (swimmer), and pseudo-complex (corner) forms. Early analyses of orthographic structure, detectable in bilateral posterior temporal regions within a 150-230msec time frame, are shown to segment the visual input into linguistic substrings (words and morphemes) that trigger lexical access in left middle temporal locations from 300 msec. These are primarily feedforward processes and are not initially constrained by lexical-level variables. Lexical constraints become significant from 390 msec, in both simple and complex words, with increased processing of pseudowords and pseudo-complex forms. These results, consistent with morpho-orthographic models based on masked priming data, map out the real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition, establishing basic feedforward processing relationships between orthographic form, morphological structure, and lexical meaning.
  • Wichmann, Søren, et al. (författare)
  • Phonological diversity, word length, and population sizes across languages: The ASJP evidence
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Linguistic Typology. - 1430-0532. ; 15:2, s. 177-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous literature has reported a positive correlation between phoneme inventory sizes and population sizes for languages, indicating that larger languages tend to make more phonological distinctions, and claims have also been made that average word length and phoneme inventory sizes are negatively correlated. Yet another relevant variable is geography, since the spatial propinquity of languages influences the similarity of their overall typological profile; moreover, specific historical events affecting language distributions, such as migrations or the development of certain cultural advantages, are usually also anchored geographically. In this paper we replicate previous findings on a substantially larger set of data drawn from comparative wordlists in the database of the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP), and discuss the relationships among the three variables mentioned in the title of the paper as well the influence of geography, including the idea that phonemic diversity across the world's languages provides evidence for an out-of-Africa model of the expansion of languages.
  • Widlok, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Sehen, riechen, orientieren
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. - Scientific American. - 0170-2971. ; :7/2014, s. 76-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Wiemer, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • On the non-canonical marking of the highest-ranking argument in Lithuanian and Icelandic Step towards a database
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Grammatical Relations and their Non-Canonical Encoding in Baltic. - John Benjamins Publishing Company. - 9789027259097 - 9789027270399 ; s. 301-361
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper is a first report on an ongoing project aiming at building up a database of non-canonical argument marking in Lithuanian in contrast to other languages with relatively rich systems of morphological cases. The language with which we begin the comparison is Icelandic. The overarching aim consists not only in a unified inventorisation of relevant units, but in disclosing (i) regularities in the alternation of coding patterns and (ii) the factors underlying such variation. We will concentrate on case marking; this however implies agreement patterns as well, insofar as in these two languages only nominatival NPs trigger agreement on the finite verb (= predicate of the clause). We further concentrate on verbs with non-canonical marking of their highest-ranking argument (HRA); the notion of HRA is defined on the basis of the Actor-Undergoer Hierarchy as developed in Role & Reference Grammar (see 2.1). What we present here is not yet a comprehensive description of the whole body of data, but rather a problem paper which details some conceptual issues and highlights some prominent types of argument coding and their relation to lexical groups.
  • Wik, Preben, et al. (författare)
  • Can visualization of internal articulators support speech perception?
  • 2008
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the contribution to speech perception given by animations of intra-oral articulations. 18 subjects were asked to identify the words in acoustically degraded sentences in three different presentation modes: acoustic signal only, audiovisual with a front view of a synthetic face and an audiovisual with both front face view and a side view, where tongue movements were visible by making parts of the cheek transparent. The augmented reality side-view did not help subjects perform better overall than with the front view only, but it seems to have been beneficial for the perception of palatal plosives, liquids and rhotics, especially in clusters. The results indicate that it cannot be expected that intra-oral animations support speech perception in general, but that information on some articulatory features can be extracted. Animations of tongue movements have hence more potential for use in computer-assisted pronunciation and perception training than as a communication aid for the hearing-impaired.
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