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  • Lemming, Dag, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Cuff Pressure Pain Detection Is Associated with Both Sex and Physical Activity Level in Nonathletic Healthy Subjects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.). - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 1526-2375 .- 1526-4637. ; 18:8, s. 1573-1581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated.Method. Normal physical activity level was defined as Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) score ≤ 45 and high activity level as GLTEQ > 45. A pneumatic double-chamber cuff was placed around the arm or leg where a single chamber was inflated. The cuff inflation rate (1 kPa/s) was constant, and pain intensity was registered continuously on a 10 cm electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as when the pressure was perceived as painful, and pain tolerance (PTT) was when the subject terminated the cuff inflation. For PTT, the corresponding VAS score was recorded (VAS-PTT). The protocol was repeated with two chambers inflated.Result. Only single cuff results are given. For women compared with men, the PDT was lower when assessed in the arm (P = 0.002), PTTs were lower in the arm and leg (P < 0.001), and the VAS-PTT was higher in the arm and leg (P < 0.033). Highly active participants compared with less active had higher PDT (P = 0.027) in the leg. Women showed facilitated spatial summation (P < 0.014) in the arm and leg and a steeper VAS slope (i.e., the slope of the VAS pressure curve between PDT and PPT) in the arm and leg (P < 0.003).Conclusion. This study indicates that reduced pressure pain sensitivity is associated both with male sex and physical activity level.
  • Srinivasan, Divya, et al. (författare)
  • Between- and within-subject variance of motor variability metrics in females performing repetitive upper-extremity precision work
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology. - : Elsevier. - 1050-6411 .- 1873-5711. ; 25:1, s. 121-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kinematic motor variability is extensively studied in occupational, clinical and sports biomechanics, but the consistency of most motor variability metrics have never been reported. In this study, fourteen subjects performed a repetitive pipetting task on three separate days. Movements of hand, arm and pipette tip were recorded in 3D and used to compute shoulder elevation, elbow flexion and shoulder-arm coordination angles, as well as pipette-tip endpoint precision. Cycle-to-cycle motor variability was quantified using linear dispersion measures of standard kinematics properties such as peak velocity, range of motion, and inter-segmental relative phase. Between- and within-subject consistencies of these variability metrics were quantified by variance components estimated using a nested random effects model. For most metrics, the variance between subjects was larger than that between days and cycles. Entering the variance components in statistical power equations showed that for most metrics, a total of 80-100 subjects will be required to detect a 20% difference between two groups with sufficient power, while this difference can typically be detected in repeated-measures (paired) designs using 25 subjects. The reported between- and within-subject variance components can be used as a data base to facilitate efficient designs of future studies of kinematic motor variability.
  • Carlsson, E, et al. (författare)
  • High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 26:4, s. 441-450
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.
  • Wickström, William, et al. (författare)
  • Perceptions of Overuse Injury Among Swedish Ultramarathon and Marathon Runners : Cross-Sectional Study Based on the Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-1078 .- 1664-1078. ; 10, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long-distance runners’ understandings of overuse injuries are not well known which decreases the possibilities for prevention. The common sense model (CSM) outlines that runners’ perceptions of a health problem can be described using the categories identity, consequence, timeline, personal control, and cause. The aim of this study was to use the CSM to investigate perceptions of overuse injury among long-distance runners with different exercise loads.Methods: The study used a cross-sectional design. An adapted version of the illness perception questionnaire revised (IPQ-R) derived from the CSM was used to investigate Swedish ultramarathon and marathon runners’ perceptions of overuse injuries. Cluster analysis was employed for categorizing runners into high and low exercise load categories. A Principal Component Analysis was thereafter used to group variables describing injury causes. Multiple logistic regression methods were finally applied using high exercise load as endpoint variable and CSM items representing perceptions of injury identity, consequence, timeline, personal control, and causes as explanatory variables.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 165/443 (37.2%) runners. The symptoms most commonly associated with overuse injury were pain (80.1% of the runners), stiff muscles (54.1%), and stiff joints (42.0%). Overuse injury was perceived to be characterized by the possibility of personal control (stated by 78.7% of the runners), treatability (70.4%), and that the injury context was comprehensible (69.3%). The main injury causes highlighted were runner biomechanics (stated by 78.3%), the runner’s personality (72.4%), and running surface biomechanics (70.0%). Among men, a belief in that personality contributes to overuse injury increased the likelihood of belonging to the high exercise load category [Odds ratio (OR) 2.10 (95% Confidence interval (95% CI) 1.38–3.19); P = 0.001], while beliefs in that running biomechanics [OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.37–0.85); P = 0.006) and mileage (OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.54–0.96); P = 0.026] causes injury decreased the likelihood. In women, a strong perception that overuse injuries can be controlled by medical interventions decreased the likelihood of high exercise load [OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.52–0.89); P = 0.005].Conclusion: This study indicates that recognition among long-distance runners of the association between own decisions in overuse injury causation is accentuated by increased exercise loads.
  • Aasa, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Individualized low-load motor control exercises and education versus a high-load lifting exercise and education to improve activity, pain intensity, and physical performance in patients with low back pain : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. - 0190-6011 .- 1938-1344. ; 45:2, s. 77-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Low back pain is a common disorder. Patients with low back pain frequently have aberrant and pain-provocative movement patterns that often are addressed with motor control exercises. Objective To compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercise and those of a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise. Methods Seventy participants with recurrent low back pain, who were diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical pain as their dominating pain pattern, were randomized to either LMC or HLL exercise treatments. Participants were offered 12 treatment sessions over an 8-week period. All participants were also provided with education regarding pain mechanisms. Methods Participants were assessed prior to and following treatment. The primary outcome measures were activity (the Patient-Specific Functional Scale) and average pain intensity over the last 7 days (visual analog scale). The secondary outcome measure was a physical performance test battery that included 1 strength, 3 endurance, and 7 movement control tests for the lumbopelvic region. Results Both interventions resulted in significant within-group improvements in pain intensity, strength, and endurance. The LMC group showed significantly greater improvement on the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (4.2 points) compared with the HLL group (2.5 points) (P<.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pain intensity (P = .505), strength, and 1 of the 3 endurance tests. However, the LMC group showed an increase (from 2.9 to 5.9) on the movement control test subscale, whereas the HLL group showed no change (from 3.9 to 3.1) (P<.001). Conclusion An LMC intervention may result in superior outcomes in activity, movement control, and muscle endurance compared to an HLL intervention, but not in pain intensity, strength, or endurance.
  • Aho, Anna-Carin, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of being parents of young adults living with recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy from a salutogenic perspective
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neuromuscular Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 0960-8966 .- 1873-2364. ; 27:6, s. 585-595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) involve progressive muscle weakness. Parental support is important for young adults living with LGMD2, but no study has been identified focusing on the parents' experiences. The salutogenic perspective concentrates on how daily life is comprehended, managed and found meaningful, i.e. the person's sense of coherence. The aim of this study was to describe, from a salutogenic perspective, experiences of being parents of young adults living with LGMD2. Nineteen participants were included. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and the self-administrated 13-item sense of coherence questionnaire. Interview data were analysed with content analysis and related to self-rated sense of coherence. The result shows experiences of being influenced, not only by thoughts and emotions connected to the disease but also by caregiving duties and the young adults' well-being. Simultaneously, difficulty in fully grasping the disease was expressed and uncertainty about progression created worries about future management. Trying their best to support their young adults to experience well-being and to live fulfilled lives, the importance of having a social network, support from concerned professionals and eventually access to personal assistance was emphasized. The need to have meaningful pursuits of one's own was also described. The median sense of coherence score was 68 (range 53–86). Those who scored high (≥68) described satisfaction with social network, external support provided, work and leisure activities to a greater extent than those who scored low (<68). The result shows that the young adults' disease has a major impact on the parents' lives. Assessment of how the parents comprehend, manage and find meaning in everyday life may highlight support needed to promote their health.
  • Alricsson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity, health, BMI and body complaints in high school students
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Minerva Pediatrica. - 0026-4946 .- 1827-1715. ; 60:1, s. 19-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: Children and adolescents in the industrial world are becoming lessphysically active and are adopting a sedentary lifestyle in front of computersand TV. The aim of the present investigation was to determine self-relatedhealth, physical activity, prevalence of overweight and body complaints inhigh school students in Norway, and to compare students in academicprograms with those in vocational programs. METHODS: Seven hundred andtwo high school students aged 16-19 years were included in the study. Aquestionnaire was completed in three high schools and included questionsabout weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physicalactivity/sport, intensity, possible injuries or complaints during the last threemonths. RESULTS: Twenty three percent of the students suffers fromoverweight/obesity are at risk of being overweight. Males reported betterhealth than females (P<0.02). Sixty-six percent of the study group reportedbody complaints during the last three months, a higher number of femalesthan males (P=0.001). Students in vocational programs reported poorer selfrelatedhealth than those in academic programs and the males reportedbetter self-related health generally than females. Furthermore, there were ahigher level of prevalence of overweight students in vocational programsthan academic programs (P=0.039). CONCLUSION: It is important to make iteasy for school children and adolescents to do physical activity at school andduring leisure time in order to prevent overweight and obesity as well aschronic diseases later in life.
  • Andersen, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Patients' experiences of physical activity on prescription with access to counsellors in routine care : a qualitative study in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPhysical activity on prescription (PAP) has been implemented in several countries, including Sweden, to support patients who might benefit from increased physical activity. This study explores the experiences of recipients of PAP in routine health care in Sweden that offers the recipients support from physical activity counsellors. The aim was to explore influences on engagement in physical activity by PAP recipients' from a long-term perspective.MethodsWe conducted individual semi-structured interviews using a topic guide with a purposively selected sample of 13 adult PAP recipients 1.5 to 2.5years after PAP. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed through inductive and deductive content analysis. The questions were informed by Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B), which was also used as a framework to analyse the data by means of categorizing the factors (influences on the behaviour).ResultsTen factors (i.e. sub-categories) that influenced the participants' engagement in physical activity were identified. PAP recipients' capability to engage in physical activity was associated with adapting the PAP to the individual's physical capacity and taking into account the individual's previous experiences of physical activity. PAP recipients' opportunity to engage in physical activity was related to receiving a prescription, receiving professional counselling and follow-up from a physical activity counsellor, collaboration between prescriber and counsellor, having access to appropriate activities, having a balanced life situation and having support from someone who encouraged continued physical activity. PAP recipients' motivation to engage in physical activity was associated with the desire to improve his or her health condition and finding activities that encouraged continuation.ConclusionsPAP recipients' engagement in physical activity was influenced by their capability, opportunity and motivation to undertake this behaviour. Numerous extraneous factors influence capability and motivation. Physical activity counsellors were found to be important for sustained activity because they use an individual approach to counselling and flexible follow-up adapted to each individual's need of support.
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