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  • Öhman, Marie, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • The pedagogical consequences of ‘no touching’ in Physical Education : the case of Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Touch in Sports Coaching and Physical Education : Fear, Risk and Moral Panic. - New York : Routledge. - 978-0-415-82976-2 ; s. 70-84
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The chapter is focused on the context of Physical Education and the professional ideals and responsibility of the PE teacher, while implicitly demonstrating the important point that issues and dilemmas around touch, abuse and protection do not recognize sectoral boundaries. Employing a Foucauldian lens in considering a rich selection of Swedish documentation, the chapter demonstrate the pervasive effect of a particular discourse across a range of contexts. The discursive pressures affecting perception and practice in school gymnasiums and sports fields cannot be understood in isolation from experience in sport clubs organisations like the scouts and guides, where high quality intergenerational relationships are essential to making ambitious holistic goals a reality. Thus, even if Swedish schools have not laid down draconian guidance regarding touch in PE or more generally, instead relying on more general statements of intent, PE teachers are still affected by more generalized and proscriptive discourses and their translation into other contexts where they may operate, including sports coaching outside school.Referring to recordings and transcripts of PE teaching sessions drawn from a wider Swedish study, the authors explore the tensions between teachers´ practice in different PE activities and the explicit general expectations of what should be happening in, and achieved by, all Swedish schools and teachers. While recognizing the importance of child protection in stopping bad things from happening, the authors argue that there is an equally significant imperative to ensure that good things happen in teaching contexts. Acts which are nothing of the sort now risk being interpreted as obviously sexual. They stress the importance of caring and that, if it is to be appropriately understood, respected, and protected, then a more sophisticated and holistic understanding of intergenerational and pedagogic interactions than that employed in current discourses on child protection is essential. In its absence, not only is teaching impoverished, but so too is the pupils´experience. The loss, virtually by default, of key ideals of Swedish education is obviously significant, but so too is the transgression against fundamental elements of children's rights, all in the name of a limited conception of protection.[le
  • Ørtenblad, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Gross efficiency predicts a 6-min double-poling ergometer performance in recreational cross-country skiers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Sports Engineering. - 1369-7072 .- 1460-2687. ; 20:4, s. 329-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate which physiological parameters would most accurately predict a 6-min, all-out, double-poling (DP) performance in recreational cross-country skiers. Twelve male recreational cross-country skiers performed tests consisting of three series lasting 10 s, one lasting 60 s, plus a 6-min, all-out, DP performance test to estimate mean and peak power output. On a separate day, gross mechanical efficiency (GE) was estimated from a 10-min, submaximal, DP test and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) was estimated from an incremental treadmill running test. Power was measured after each stroke from the acceleration and deceleration of the flywheel that induced the friction on the ergometer. The power was shown to the skier on a small computer placed on the ergometer. A multivariable correlation analysis showed that GE most strongly predicted 6-min DP performance (r = 0.79) and interestingly, neither DP VO2 max, nor treadmill-running VO2 max, correlated with 6-min DP performance. In conclusion, GE correlated most strongly with 6-min DP performance and GE at the ski ergometer was estimated to be 6.4 ± 1.1%. It is suggested that recreational cross-country skiers focus on skiing technique to improve gross mechanical efficiency during intense DP.</p>
  • Örtenblad, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Muscle glycogen and cell function - Location, location, location
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 25, s. 34-40
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The importance of glycogen, as a fuel during exercise, is a fundamental concept in exercise physiology. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not evenly distributed in skeletal muscle fibers, but rather localized in distinct pools. In this review, we present the available evidence regarding the subcellular localization of glycogen in skeletal muscle and discuss this from the perspective of skeletal muscle fiber function. The distribution of glycogen in the defined pools within the skeletal muscle varies depending on exercise intensity, fiber phenotype, training status, and immobilization. Furthermore, these defined pools may serve specific functions in the cell. Specifically, reduced levels of these pools of glycogen are associated with reduced SR Ca2+ release, muscle relaxation rate, and membrane excitability. Collectively, the available literature strongly demonstrates that the subcellular localization of glycogen has to be considered to fully understand the role of glycogen metabolism and signaling in skeletal muscle function. Here, we propose that the effect of low muscle glycogen on excitation-contraction coupling may serve as a built-in mechanism, which links the energetic state of the muscle fiber to energy utilization.</p>
  • Ørtenblad, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Muscle glycogen stores and fatigue
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751 .- 1469-7793. ; 591:18, s. 4405-4413
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Studies performed at the beginning of the last century revealed the importance of carbohydrate as a fuel during exercise, and the importance of muscle glycogen on performance has subsequently been confirmed in numerous studies. However, the link between glycogen depletion and impaired muscle function during fatigue is not well understood and a direct cause-and-effect relationship between glycogen and muscle function remains to be established. The use of electron microscopy has revealed that glycogen is not homogeneously distributed in skeletal muscle fibres, but rather localized in distinct pools. Furthermore, each glycogen granule has its own metabolic machinery with glycolytic enzymes and regulating proteins. One pool of such glycogenolytic complexes is localized within the myofibrils in close contact with key proteins involved in the excitation-contraction coupling and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). We and others have provided experimental evidence in favour of a direct role of decreased glycogen, localized within the myofibrils, for the reduction in SR Ca2+ release during fatigue. This is consistent with compartmentalized energy turnover and distinctly localized glycogen pools being of key importance for SR Ca2+ release and thereby affecting muscle contractility and fatigability.</p>
  • Östenberg, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Injury risk factors in female European football : a prospective study of 123 players during one season
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - Munksgaard Forlag. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 10:5, s. 279-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this study was to register prospectively the injuries in female soccer and to study their correlation to potential risk factors. A total of 123 senior players from eight teams of different levels were followed during one season. Isokinetic knee muscle strength at 60 and 180 degrees/s, one-leg-hop, vertical jump, square-hop, and continuous multistage fitness test (MFT) were tested at the end of the pre-season. In addition, Body Mass Index (BMI) and general joint laxity were measured. During the season, April-October, all injuries resulting in absence from one practice/game or more were registered. Forty-seven of the 123 players sustained altogether 65 injuries. The total injury rate was 14.3 per 1000 game hours and 3.7 per 1000 practice hours. The knee (26%) was the most commonly injured region followed by the foot (12%), ankle (11%), thigh (11%) and back (11%). The risk of sustaining moderate and major injuries increased in the later part of the game or practice. Significant risk factors for injuries were an increased general joint laxity (odds ratio (OR)=5.3, P&lt;0.001), a high performance in the functional test square-hop (OR=4.3, P=0.002), and an age over 25 years (OR=3.7, P=0.01). The injury rate was not different compared to male soccer, but knee injuries were more common, which is in accordance with previous studies. None of the risk factors identified in this study is easily applicable for future intervention studies in the attempts to reduce the injury rate in female soccer.</p>
  • Östenberg, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Isokinetic knee extensor strength and functional performance in healthy female soccer players
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 8:5, s. 257-264
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between isokinetic knee extensor muscle strength at 60 degrees/s and 180 degrees/s and five functional performance tests (one-leg-hop, triple-jump, vertical-jump, one-leg-rising and square-hop), to determine the relationship between the five different functional performance tests and to present normative data and limb symmetry index concerning healthy female soccer players. In total 101 female soccer players (X = 20.3 years) were tested. A limb symmetry index, using weak/strong leg, varied from 83.9 to 96.3 in the tests. Between the functional performance tests there were in general correlations of r = 0.4-0.8 (P &lt; 0.001). A correlation of r = 0.77 (P &lt; 0.001) was obtained between one-leg-hop and triple-jump. No differences were found between the right and the left leg or the dominant and the non-dominant leg. Using linear regression models corrected for body weight, height and age, there were low correlations between the isokinetic strength measurements and the functional tests. It is not recommended using functional performance testing and isokinetic testing interchangeably.</p>
  • Östenberg, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Physical capacity in female soccer players : does age make a difference?
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Advances in Physiotherapy. - Taylor & Francis. - 1403-8196 .- 1651-1948. ; 2:1, s. 39-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There is an increased risk of injuries, especially knee injuries, in young female soccer players. If age-related differences in physical capacity could be identified, the possibilities for injury prevention may increase. The objective was to study possible age-related differences in isokinetic muscle strength, aerobic capacity, functional performance, and general joint laxity in female soccer players. Body mass index (BMI) (kg × m-2) was also measured. In total 108 players, recruited from seven soccer teams, were tested. The mean age was 20.2 years (SD=4.1, range=14-30). Players aged ≦20 years and&gt;20 years were compared. The following tests were employed: isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength at velocities of 60 °/s and 180°/s, one-leg hop, triple jump, vertical jump, square-hop, and aerobic capacity. The older group had greater isokinetic strength for the flexor muscles at a peak torque of 60°/s (p=0.04), and total work at 60°/s and 180°/s (p=0.04 and 0.03). The older group had a higher BMI and more years of soccer playing (p≪0.001). The results revealed no significant differences between the age groups regarding, functional performance, aerobic capacity, or general joint laxity. Further studies are needed on intrinsic risk factors to identify variables explaining the difference in injury rate between younger and older players. </p>
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