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61.
  • Strandberg, Emelie, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - : American Physiological Society. - 8750-7587 .- 1522-1601. ; 119:8, s. 918-925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.
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62.
  • Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Functional polymorphisms within the inflammatory pathway regulate expression of extracellular matrix components in a genetic risk dependent model for anterior cruciate ligament injuries.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. - : Elsevier. - 1440-2440 .- 1878-1861. ; 22:11, s. 1219-1225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the functional effect of genetic polymorphisms of the inflammatory pathway on structural extracellular matrix components (ECM) and the susceptibility to an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.DESIGN: Laboratory study, case-control study.METHODS: Eight healthy participants were genotyped for interleukin (IL)1B rs16944 C>T and IL6 rs1800795 G>C and classified into genetic risk profile groups. Differences in type I collagen (COL1A1), type V collagen (COL5A1), biglycan (BGN) and decorin (DCN) gene expression were measured in fibroblasts either unstimulated or following IL-1β, IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatment. Moreover, a genetic association study was conducted in: (i) a Swedish cohort comprised of 116 asymptomatic controls (CON) and 79 ACL ruptures and (ii) a South African cohort of 100 CONs and 98 ACLs. Participants were genotyped for COL5A1 rs12722 C>T, IL1B rs16944 C>T, IL6 rs1800795 G>C and IL6R rs2228145 G>C.RESULTS: IL1B high-risk fibroblasts had decreased BGN (p=0.020) and COL5A1 (p=0.012) levels after IL-1β stimulation and expressed less COL5A1 (p=0.042) following TNF-α treatment. Similarly, unstimulated IL6 high-risk fibroblasts had lower COL5A1 (p=0.012) levels than IL6 low-risk fibroblasts. In the genetic association study, the COL5A1-IL1B-IL6 T-C-G (p=0.034, Haplo-score 2.1) and the COL5A1-IL1B-IL6R T-C-A (p=0.044, Haplo-score: 2.0) combinations were associated with an increased susceptibility to ACL injury in the Swedish cohort when only male participants were evaluated.CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that polymorphisms within genes of the inflammatory pathway modulate the expression of structural and fibril-associated ECM components in a genetic risk depended manner, contributing to an increased susceptibility to ACL injuries.
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63.
  • Sundell, Claes-Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stress-Related Bone Injuries in Tuber Ischiadicum
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics. - 2374-6904 .- 2374-8354. ; 4:1, s. 1-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Stress-Related Bone Injuries (SRBI) in the Tuber Ischiadicum (TI) is a possible preliminary diagnosis in adolescent athletes with pain in the pelvic region or in the back of the thigh. The condition requires an early diagnosis in order to heal properly. We describe five cases of young athletes seeking a physiotherapist for pelvic or back thigh pain.Materials and methods: Five patients previously diagnosed with lower back pain, groin pain, pelvic or back thigh pain underwent a Physical Examination (PE) by a physiotherapist to identify the pathogenesis of the pain. The PE led to the preliminary diagnosis of SRBI in the TI, which was confirmed by an MRI. The patients were treated with rest and Personally Guided Rehabilitation (PGR).Results : All cases had a positive eccentric hip extension test and pain provocation on palpation on the TI. MRI found different levels of stress reactions/fractures in the enthesis of the TI. After rest and rehabilitation, all subjects returned to their previous level of physical activity.Conclusion: PE appeared to identify adolescent athlete patients with SRBI in the TI requiring an MRI. The correct diagnosis led to a quick return to the previous level of physical activity.Clinical relevance: An early and correct diagnosis thru a thorough PE can lead to complete healing and a return to sports.
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64.
  • Westerberg, Elisabet, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of physical exercise on neuromuscular function in Myasthenia gravis patients : A single-subject design study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 97:31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a need for tailored exercise recommendations to patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG). A few pilot studies have recently shown that physical exercise in accordance with general recommendations to healthy adults can be applied safely to patients with mild MG symptoms. How physical exercise affects muscle parameters and risk factors for life-style diseases in patients with MG is, however, only poorly known. We evaluated functional skeletal muscle parameters in 11 MG patients, before and after conducting a 12-week supervised physical therapy regimen of aerobic and high-resistance strength training. After the training program, parameters of the proximal leg muscle rectus femoris improved: compound motor action potential (from 4.5 ± 2.6 to 5.3 ± 2.8 mV, p=0.016), isometric muscle force (from 25.2 ± 4.4 to 30.2 ± 3.8 kg; p=0.014) and ultrasound muscle thickness (from 19.6 ± 5.6 to 23.0 ± 3.9 mm, p=0.0098) all increased. Further, physical performance-based measures improved, including the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (median change +2, p=0.0039) as well as the clinical MG composite score (from 3[2-5] to 2 [0-4], p=0.043). These findings indicate that MG patients can improve their functional muscle status as a result of aerobic and high-resistance strength training, especially in proximal leg muscles. This is important knowledge when physical therapy is considered for this patient group, for whom no guidelines on physical exercise currently exist.
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65.
  • Yu, Ji-Guo, et al. (författare)
  • Potential effects of long term abuse of anabolic androgen steroids on human skeletal muscle
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. - : Edizioni Minerva Medica. - 0022-4707 .- 1827-1928. ; 60:7, s. 1040-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We have previously evaluated muscle functions and morphology in power athletes of long term (5 to15 years) abuse of anabolic androgen steroids (AAS; Doped) and in clean power athletes (Clean), and observed significant improvements in both muscle morphology and muscle functions in Doped. To our knowledge, the effects of long term AAS abuse on human muscle protein profile have never been studied.METHODS: The study examined further the muscle biopsies using a two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) for proteomic screening and protein expression. Cellular localization/distribution of specific proteins identified by proteomic analysis was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC).RESULTS: Different protein profiles were observed between Doped and Clean, and a valid orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis model was built (N = 16, X = 5, R2 = 0.88/Q2 = 0.84, p = 0.0005), which separated Doped from Clean. Liquid chromatography followed by tandem spectrometry identified 14 protein spots (representing nine different proteins) of significant difference in relative quantity (p < 0.05), of which nine spots were down-regulated in Doped compared with Clean. IHC revealed no significant alteration in cellular localization in phosphoglucomutase-1 and heat shock protein beta-1, but indeed in two reference proteins desmin and F-actin in Doped.CONCLUSIONS: Long term abuse of AAS in combination with training is potentially associated with alterations in skeletal muscle protein profile and protein expression, and structural proteins rather than non-structural proteins are preferentially affected in cellular localization/distribution.
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66.
  • Ørtenblad, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Role of glycogen availability in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) kinetics in human skeletal muscle
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751 .- 1469-7793. ; 589:3, s. 711-725
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about the precise mechanism that relates skeletal muscle glycogen to muscle fatigue. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of glycogen on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function in the arm and leg muscles of elite cross-country skiers (n = 10, (V) over dot(O2 max) 72 +/- 2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) before, immediately after, and 4 h and 22 h after a fatiguing 1 h ski race. During the first 4 h recovery, skiers received either water or carbohydrate (CHO) and thereafter all received CHO-enriched food. Immediately after the race, arm glycogen was reduced to 31 +/- 4% and SR Ca2+ release rate decreased to 85 +/- 2% of initial levels. Glycogen noticeably recovered after 4 h recovery with CHO (59 +/- 5% initial) and the SR Ca2+ release rate returned to pre-exercise levels. However, in the absence of CHO during the first 4 h recovery, glycogen and the SR Ca2+ release rate remained unchanged (29 +/- 2% and 77 +/- 8%, respectively), with both parameters becoming normal after the remaining 18 h recovery with CHO. Leg muscle glycogen decreased to a lesser extent (71 +/- 10% initial), with no effects on the SR Ca2+ release rate. Interestingly, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the specific pool of intramyofibrillar glycogen, representing 10-15% of total glycogen, was highly significantly correlated with the SR Ca2+ release rate. These observations strongly indicate that low glycogen and especially intramyofibrillar glycogen, as suggested by TEM, modulate the SR Ca2+ release rate in highly trained subjects. Thus, low glycogen during exercise may contribute to fatigue by causing a decreased SR Ca2+ release rate.
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67.
  • Moesch, Karin, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • FEPSAC position statement : Mental health disorders in elite athletes and models of service provision
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 1469-0292 .- 1878-5476. ; 38:September 2018, s. 61-71
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mental health disorders (MHD) in elite athletes is a topic that has received increased attention in recent years. The overall aim of this position statement is to enhance awareness of this important topic and to critically discuss optimal service provision for athletes who suffer from MHD. In the first part of the paper a short overview of the research on MHD in elite athletes is provided. Elite athletes seem to have comparable prevalence rates for the most common MHD when compared to non-athletic peers, but there are still many disorders that have not been investigated in athletes. Sport specific situations such as injuries, periods of overtraining and career termination may put athletes at an increased risk of developing MHD. In the second part of the paper, models of service provision for elite athletes suffering from MHD from six European countries are presented, focusing on 1) professional service providers, 2) support systems, 3) diagnostic assessment, 4) clinical treatment, 5) performance during treatment, 6) screening, and 7) education systems. It emerges that competencies, certification issues, and professional boundaries of the involved service providers, as well as the structure of the National Health Care systems differ strongly across European countries, which makes defining a golden standard difficult. In the third part of this paper, the authors provide general recommendations for athletes and coaches, clubs, federations, organizations and scholars that hopefully will inspire stakeholders to optimize their support systems. © 2018
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68.
  • Timpka, Toomas, et al. (författare)
  • What is a Sports Injury?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Sports Medicine. - : Springer. - 0112-1642 .- 1179-2035. ; 44:4, s. 423-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, sports injury denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; sports trauma is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and sports incapacity is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as sports disease (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, sports illness when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and sports sickness when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
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69.
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70.
  • Fagher, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • An eHealth Application of Self-Reported Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport : Pilot Feasibility and Usability Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JMIR Human Factors. - Toronto, Canada : JMIR Publications. - 2292-9495. ; 4:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes’ additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes’ self-reports. Using eHealth applications for collection of self-reported SRIIPS is an unexplored area, and before initiation of full-scale research of SRIIPS, the feasibility and usability of such an approach needs to be ascertained.Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a 4-week pilot study and (1) evaluate the monitoring feasibility and system usability of a novel eHealth application for self-reported SRIIPS and (2) report preliminary data on SRIIPS.Methods: An eHealth application for routine collection of data from athletes was developed and adapted to Paralympic athletes. A 4-week pilot study was performed where Paralympic athletes (n=28) were asked to weekly self-report sport exposure, training load, general well-being, pain, sleep, anxiety, and possible SRIIPS. The data collection was followed by a poststudy use assessment survey. Quantitative data related to the system use (eg, completed self-reports, missing responses, and errors) were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The qualitative feasibility and usability data provided by the athletes were condensed and categorized using thematic analysis methods.Results: The weekly response rate was 95%. The athletes were of the opinion that the eHealth application was usable and feasible but stated that it was not fully adapted to Paralympic athletes and their impairments. For example, it was difficult to understand how a new injury or illness should be identified when the impairment was involved. More survey items related to the impairments were requested, as the athletes perceived that injuries and illnesses often occurred because of the impairment. Options for description of multifactorial incidents including an injury, an illness, and the impairment were also insufficient. Few technical issues were encountered, but athletes with visual impairment reported usability difficulties with the speech synthesizer. An incidence rate of 1.8 injuries and 1.7 illnesses per 100 hours of athlete exposure were recorded. The weekly pain prevalence was 56% and the impairment contributed to 20% of the reported incidents.Conclusions: The novel eHealth-based application for self-reported SRIIPS developed and tested in this pilot study was generally feasible and usable. With some adaptation to accommodate Paralympic athletes’ prerequisites and improved technical support for athletes with visual impairment, this application can be recommended for use in prospective studies of SRIIPS.
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