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71.
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72.
  • Leirhaug, Petter E., et al. (författare)
  • ‘The grade alone provides no learning’: Investigating assessment literacy among Norwegian physical education teachers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education. - 1837-7122 .- 1837-7130. ; 7:1, s. 21-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2016 Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation.This paper explores the four inter-dependent elements of assessment literacy proposed by Hay and Penney [(2013). Assessment in physical education. A sociocultural perspective. New York: Routledge]-assessment comprehension, assessment application, assessment interpretation and critical engagement with assessment. More specific, the study reported in this paper addresses how Norwegian physical education teachers reflected assessment literacy in descriptions and discussions of their assessment practice. Twentythree physical education teachers from six upper secondary schools in Norway participated in focus groups. Analysis and discussion are informed by the four elements of assessment literacy. Findings demonstrate a general need to enhance assessment literacy among the teachers, with particular focus on dialogue with students and critical engagement with assessment. Acknowledging assessment literacy as an ongoing process, the study suggests that it may be more effective to consider ‘preconditions’ than ‘elements’ of assessment literacy for a physical education teacher to be considered as acting assessment literate.
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73.
  • Mattsson, C. Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users, but the effects of snuff cessation (SC) after several years of daily use on individual level are unknown. 24 participants with &gt;2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after &gt;6 weeks SC (SCG), together with a control group (CO) of 11 snuff users who kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) was significantly lower in SCG after SC. Body mass in SCG group increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg and blood pressure (BP) were reduced, but without significant differences between groups. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89–4.35) to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16–4.75) mM/L in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged in both groups. During a four-stage incremental (from 50 to 80% of VO2max) and a prolonged (60 min at 50% of VO2max) cycling test HR and BP were reduced in SCG, while oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa) and blood glucose (bGlu) concentration, and rate of perceived exertion were unchanged. All measurements were unchanged in CO. During the prolonged exercise FFA was reduced but there was no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE), time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time) does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory.</p>
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74.
  • McGawley, Kerry, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. - 1440-2440 .- 1878-1861. ; 18:2, s. 214-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives</p><p>Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (<img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si7.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si7.gif" />VO2) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 x 6-s repeated-sprint bouts.</p><p>Design</p><p>Cross-sectional study.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 x 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (t<sub>rec</sub>) required to recover total work done (W<sub>tot</sub>) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by t<sub>rec</sub>.</p><p>Results</p><p>The t<sub>rec</sub> was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si8.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si8.gif" />VO2 during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (p &lt; 0.001), and the estimated aerobic contribution to the final sprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si9.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si9.gif" />VO2max in both B1 (r = 0.81, p = 0.015) and B2 (r = 0.93, p = 0.001). In addition, the <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si10.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si10.gif" />VO2 attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si11.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si11.gif" />VO2max in B1 (p = 0.284) or B2 (p = 0.448).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The current study shows that the <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si12.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si12.gif" />VO2 increases from the first to the last of 5 x 6-s sprints and that <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si13.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si13.gif" />VO2max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing <img src="http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si14.gif" data-loaded="true" data-inlimgeid="1-s2.0-S1440244014000309-si14.gif" />VO2max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints.</p>
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75.
  • Mikicin, Mirosław, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of the Neurofeedback‑EEG Training During Physical Exercise on the Range of Mental Work Performance and Individual Physiological Parameters in Swimmers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. - 1090-0586 .- 1573-3270.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of the Neurofeedback-EEG training during physical exercise on the improvements in mental work performance and physiological parameters. The study examined seven swimmers based on the following anthropometric measurements: body height, body mass and body composition. The Kraepelin’s work curve test, EEG and EMG during physical exercise were also performed. The athletes followed 20 Neurofeedback-EEG training sessions on the swimming ergometer for 4 months. Most mean indices of partial measures of the work curve were significantly modified (p < 0.05) following the Neurofeedback-EEG training. Mean level of maximal oxygen uptake in study participants was over 55 ml/kg/min, with statistically significant differences documented between the first and the second measurements. No significant differences were found in the fatigue rate between the measurements 1 and 2. The improved mental work performance following the Neurofeedback-EEG training facilitates optimization of psychomotor activities.
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76.
  • Nilsson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Complex I is bypassed during high intensity exercise
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human muscles are tailored towards ATP synthesis. When exercising at high work rates muscles convert glucose to lactate, which is less nutrient efficient than respiration. There is hence a trade-off between endurance and power. Metabolic models have been developed to study how limited catalytic capacity of enzymes affects ATP synthesis. Here we integrate an enzyme-constrained metabolic model with proteomics data from muscle fibers. We find that ATP synthesis is constrained by several enzymes. A metabolic bypass of mitochondrial complex I is found to increase the ATP synthesis rate per gram of protein compared to full respiration. To test if this metabolic mode occurs in vivo, we conduct a high resolved incremental exercise tests for five subjects. Their gas exchange at different work rates is accurately reproduced by a whole-body metabolic model incorporating complex I bypass. The study therefore shows how proteome allocation influences metabolism during high intensity exercise.
77.
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78.
  •  
79.
  • Perchthaler, Dennis, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of a six-week whole-body vibration intervention on neuromuscular performance in older adults
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. - 1064-8011. ; 29:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perchthaler, D, Grau, S, and Hein, T. Evaluation of a 6-week whole-body vibration intervention on neuromuscular performance in older adults. J Strength Cond Res 29(1): 86–95, 2015—Research in the field of whole-body vibration (WBV) for the enhancement of neuromuscular performance is becoming increasingly popular. However, additional understanding of optimal WBV training protocols is still necessary to develop optimal and effective training and prevention concepts, especially for elderly people. The intention of this study was to evaluate a 6-week WBV intervention program based on optimal vibration loads adapted from the literature on lower-limb strength parameters and performance, as well as on perceived exertion according to a subjective rating. A total of 21 older adults were allocated randomly into either a WBV training or control group (CO). Before and after the intervention period, jump height was measured during a countermovement jump. In addition, isolated isokinetic maximal knee extension and flexion strength, mean power, and work were recorded using a motordriven dynamometer. Borg’s scale for rating of perceived exertion was used to evaluate the intensity of WBV exercises within each training session. After the intervention period, jump height increased by 18.55% (p , 0.001) in the WBV group, whereas values of the CO remained unchanged. There were no statistically significant differences in isokinetic maximal strength, mean power, or work values in knee extension or flexion (all p . 0.05). Finally, the subjective perceived exertion of the WBV exercises and respective training parameters ranged between moderate rating levels of 7 and 13 of Borg’s scale. Our data show that WBV is a feasible and safe training program for elderly people to increase multijoint strength performance of the lower limbs during a countermovement jump. This could help to determine the potential of WBV programs in training of the elderly to prevent age-related reduction of neuromuscular performance.
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80.
  • Purkhus, E., et al. (författare)
  • HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING IMPROVES EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN ELITE WOMEN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS DURING A COMPETITIVE SEASON
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. - 1064-8011. ; 30:11, s. 3066-3072
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean +/- SD: age, 19 +/- 5 years; height, 171 +/- 7 cm; weight, 63 +/- 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 x 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 x 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 +/- 4 m and increased (p <= 0.05) by 4.6% (159 +/- 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p <= 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 6 0.97-18.44 +/- 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 +/- 2.9 and 6.2 +/- 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p <= 0.05) to 2.7 +/- 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 +/- 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p <= 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.
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