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  • Raustorp, Anders, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Tracking of Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study From Adolescence to Adulthood in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of physical activity & health. - 1543-5474. ; 10:8, s. 1186-1192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Tracking refers to the tendency for an individual to maintain their rank within a group over time. AIM: To identify levels of pedometer determined physical activity and explore tracking over ten year follow up period. METHODS: In October of 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2010, data of physical activity as steps/day was measured with Yamax SW-200 Tokyo, Japan for four consecutive schooldays in 40 (19 females) Swedish individuals (mean age 12.7 in 2000). RESULTS: In boys a decrease of mean step/day occurred between baseline and the three year (p < 0.001), the five year (p < 0.001) and the ten year follow-up (p < 0.014). A significant moderate tracking occurred in those at baseline classified insufficient active, both over the 3-5 year (rs = 0.56, p = 0.005) and the 0-10 year span (rs = 0.47, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The significant decrease of physical activity, as steps/day, in males at early adolescent seems to level out during late adolescence and early adulthood. Further, youth classified insufficient active according to published BMI reference standards at the baseline measures showed a significant moderate tracking over the ten year follow-up period.
  • Stigell, Erik, 1969- (författare)
  • Assessment of active commuting behaviour walking and bicycling in Greater Stockholm
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Walking and bicycling to work, active commuting, can contribute to sustainable mobility and provide regular health-enhancing physical activity for individuals. Our knowledge of active commuting behaviours in general and in different mode and gender groups in particular is limited. Moreover, the validity and reproducibility of the methods to measure the key variables of the behaviours are uncertain. The aims of this thesis is to explore gender and mode choice differences in commuting behaviours in terms of distance, duration, velocity and trip frequency, of a group of adult commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, and furthermore to develop a criterion method for distance measurements and to assess the validity of four other distance measurement methods. We used one sample of active commuters recruited by advertisements, n = 1872, and one street-recruited sample, n = 140. Participants received a questionnaire and a map to draw their commuting route on. The main findings of the thesis were, firstly, that the map-based method could function as a criterion method for active commuting distance measurements and, secondly, that four assessed distance measurement methods – straight-line distance, GIS, GPS and self-report – differed significantly from the criterion method. Therefore, we recommend the use of correction factors to compensate for the systematic over- and underestimations. We also found three distinctly different modality groups in both men and women with different behaviours in commuting distance, duration and trip frequency. These groups were commuters who exclusively walk or bicycle the whole way to work, and dual mode commuters who switch between walking and cycling. These mode groups accrued different amounts of activity time for commuting. Through active commuting <em>per se</em>, the median pedestrian and dual mode commuters met or were close to the recommended physical activity level of 150 minutes per week during most months of the year, whereas the single mode cyclists did so only during the summer half of the year.</p>
  • Stråhlman, Owe, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • PhD-network in Sport Science.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: AIESEP conference in Auckland NZ..
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Sport science is an expanding discipline, especially among doctoral students. This expanding interest is primarily demanded by changes in post-modern society and awareness of individual changes related to physical performance, cognitive development, health and lifestyle. The expansion has also demanded new theoretical challenges, such as ontological and epistemological innovative thinking in implementing practical challenges as field related specialized courses, qualified supervision and skilled teachers. AIMS: In 2009 the Swedish Sport Science Research School started. The purpose was to generate sport-related scientific knowledge, extended theory development and adapted research methods. The purpose was also to educate doctoral candidates in: • theory of science and research methods • subject related theory • sport research and internationalisation, integration and equality THEORETICAL FRAME: The concept Sport Science is multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and disciplinary and it´s under constant paradigmatic change with aims to identify practical application and new theoretical approaches, in areas as: • Health and Fitness • Physical Education • Sport Coaching • Sport Management Important frame factors in this context are internationalisation, integration and equality, aspects related to the sport-in-society concept. CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIELD: The described theoretical frame stresses a foundation of sport-related scientific knowledge in relation to research areas and has proved to be innovative and significant. The importance of a symbiotic relation between the development of knowledge in sport and the development of the sport science theoretical concepts is fundamental. The connection between the development of the different research areas, educational content and knowledge shapes epistemological legitimacy, and theoretical development has in this case been successful.
  • Stråhlman, Owe, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Post retirement experiences of former Swedish elite athletes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ECSS 2014. ; 1
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction Previous studies have shown that successful sport careers are often based upon the notion that athletes are living a life in harmony, and that positive adjustment to retirement is dependent on the athletes coping strategies and adjustment skills adapted during the sport career (Patriksson, 1995; Stråhlman, 2006). The aims of this study are to describe; (1) the perceptions and experiences of the road through the elite sports career, (2) experiences of the transition from elite sport to a post retirement life. Method 36 athletes were interviewed (26 men -10 women) all with experience of top-level sport on international basis. One third of the group had finished their career before or during the 1990s and the others in the 2000s. The respondents represented various sports. The issues discussed highlight the aims of the study, and the questions where formulated to grasp the essence of the respondents’ experiences. Results The career ended for many of the respondents as a conscious planned decision, even if one third made a comeback. Only a few ended in an abrupt way. The decision to end the sport career was often a combination of reasons; lack of motivation, injury - health problems and age. The transition from elite sport went for the majority smoothly and the respondents enjoyed their retirement lives, although a small portion of them experienced problems as a direct result of their career ending. Sport still played a central role and sport related properties were important for the respondents’ lives. No one regretted their elite sports career but they underlined the importance to prepare for the post retirement life. The majority of the respondents found new jobs, most sport related, and they were satisfied with their lives. Discussion It is important not only to focus on the elite sport career, but on career support in general, especially for those with problematic adjustment. Unproblematic voluntary adjustment is often linked to the possibility to prepare in advance for retirement. Since no one reported having severe injuries that predominantly affected their post retirement life, they could put their new ambitions in other areas. Sport organisations, public authorities and individuals are all responsible for the athlete’s retirement. References Park, S., Lavallee, D. & Tod, D. (2013). Athletes´ career transition out of sport: a systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6:1, 22-53. Patriksson, G. (1995). The elite sports career. Mölndal: Institutionen för pedagogik. Göteborgs universitet. Stråhlman, O. (2006). Elite sport retirement process: career analysis of former Swedish elite athletes. Göteborg: Department of Education, Göteborg University. Owe.strahlman@ped.gu.se
  • Stråhlman, Owe, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • THE Sports Lift Project: a study of governing relations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: AIESEP World Congress 2014, Auckland, New Zeeland. ; 1:1
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In 2003 the Swedish Parliament voted for a “Handshake with Sport”, a four years sport-promoting project for children and youth. The Confederation received approximately 100 million EURO to allocate among its federations and the aim was to open the doors of sport. A prioritized sub-theme was to encourage schools to promote physical activity. In 2006 to 2014 the project continued with about 400 million EURO as the “Sports-lift-project”, only with slightly modified general aims. AIMS: This study is a research project aiming to evaluate effects of the Sports-lift; especially the Swedish University Sports Federation and the Recreation and Exercise Sports Federation. The results focus on the theoretical concept governmentality, with emphasis on corporatism and of sport organizations and sport activities in school. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with responsible persons at the Swedish Sport confederation, the two Sport federations and at the Ministry of Culture and Sport. The interviews were recorded and rules of ethical considerations have been followed. RESULTS: The results show that understanding in terms of unity and consensus is a vital part of the Sports-lift. The informants from the Confederation/the Federations and the Ministry of culture and sport meant that the realization of the Sports-lift demanded considerable space for the Sport associations and little governing from the ministry. DISCUSSION: The almost invisible governance from the state in the Sports-lift is a very efficient strategy in a situation where actors are dependent of each other (sports are generally popular among voters and the sport sector is in need of government support). But it is also a venturesome line of action if the counterparts lack in mutual trust, which can jeopardize the whole project.
  • Stråhlman, Owe, 1954- (författare)
  • Volunteers at GöteborgsVarvet 2013 Volunteering Experiences at a Sporting Event
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: GöteborgsVarvet half marathon in Sweden is the largest running event in the world, and the race has undergone major developments. In May 2012, there were 44,093 participants who started the race. To accomplish the event about 4,000 volunteers1 are needed annually to organise all the necessary aspects and functions. In order to continue to develop the event, the organisers in 2013 carried out an investigation in order to gain experience and increase knowledge about informing and educating volunteers. A sample of volunteers was asked to take part in an evaluation study that was launched in May-June 2013. Aims: The aims of the study are to describe (1) the kind of individual benefits provided by volunteering at GöteborgsVarvet and (2) the respondents’ opinions about the organisation of the event. Method: A questionnaire was sent out to the volunteers. The survey contained questions about two major areas of interest; (1) the respondent’s opinions about the organisation of the event and (2) the kind of individual benefits volunteering provides. In all, 607 respondents (39%) answered the questionnaire. Of those, 286 were women and 320 were men (one respondent did not answer the question about gender). Results: The results from the sample in this study confirm that volunteering is an emotional experience and offers an emotional reward. There are important motivational factors such as enrichment, prestige and career enhancement, and the volunteers found these opportunities more or less useful in their careers. The respondents in this study felt a degree of altruism as part of their work as volunteers. Knowledge about developing and rewarding factors is essential for recruiting and retaining volunteers.
  • Teng, Gunnar, 1952- (författare)
  • Uppdrag samspel - en studie om elevers samspelskunnande i bollspel i ämnet idrott och hälsa
  • 2013
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study is an intervention study conducted on students in the middle years of a Swedish suburban school. The aim of the study is to examine students’ cooperative skills in ball games in the subject of physical education. The study’s questions focus on what emerges in activity and in conversation when students receive cooperative tasks that they must complete together in ball games, and how these conversations and activities change during the learning process. The study also focuses on the patterns that occur in the game room when students must help each other cooperate, and on the consequences of these patterns for the learning of cooperation in ball games. The intervention consisted of three game laboratories, created as special tasks by means of cooperation, which were orchestrated. The study is based on and can be understood through John Dewey's pragmatic epistemology. It has a constructionist basis which means that learning and development is seen as an active process where individuals creat meaning in cooperation with others. Furthermore, the theoretical framework implies that students and the environment are seen as constantly interacting, creating each other in a mutual transactional process. A practical epistemology analysis (PEA) was used for the analysis of `talk and action´ in order to explore students' constructions and reconstructions of meaning making and learning about cooperation in ballgames. The empirical material consists of 24 games played and 24 rounds of talks. The first game laboratory focuses on what students are doing and talking about when they are asked to achieve the first pass. The second game laboratory focuses on what they do and talk about in order to succeed together in getting across the field’s halfway line before they get to shoot at goal. The third game laboratory focuses on what students should do to achieve the final pass before shooting at goal. The analysis of the game laboratories shows that it is not enough to pass or to create space as, own rooms in order to achieve cooperation in ballgames. The students’ actions and agreements during talks must also harmonise with the purpose of the task in order to allow learning to cooperate in ballgames to occur. The patterns that emerged in the game room were convergence and divergence; students created their own rooms as well as isolated rooms. Furthermore, densified game room was observed to hinder cooperation, and thinned room to favour cooperation.
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